Catalog
2018-19

Biology

Dr. Ghislaine Mayer
Chair of the Department

Biology is housed in Leo Building and in Hayden Hall.

Many of the critical problems that the world faces, which challenge values and beliefs, can best be understood with a knowledge of biological principles. Accordingly, the mission of the Department of Biology is to give our students an appreciation of the methods, potentials, achievements, and limitations of the biological sciences, and to instill in them the intellectual and ethical skills to use this information effectively. To accomplish this, the Department provides a combination of required and elective courses in biology consistent with a liberal education.  The department maintains a tradition of strong support for undergraduate research. The faculty members of the Department of Biology recognize their responsibility to teach the values that are important to the process of free inquiry, the foundation of the discipline. The department fosters the utilization of research strategies to address scientific questions, the abilities of students to communicate scientific principles.  The department also cultivates the  critical thinking skills of students. The Department of Biology strives to prepare the students for advanced studies and professional careers.

Major

Every student considering a major in the department must consult their faculty advisor by the end of the first semester. Beginning Fall 2014, all standard required courses for the Biology major at the 200 and above level will transition to 4 credits (except for BIOL 207 & 208.  BIOL 207 and BIOL 208 will transition to 4 credits in the fall of 2018).  This transition will affect the class of 2017 and beyond and will not change the total number of credits to graduate.

B.S. Degree

Recognizing the various professional goals of our students, the department offers groups of courses in several areas of study which contribute toward reaching a specific career objective. These areas of study include: Pre-Medical-Dental, Pre-Professional, Research, Environmental Biology, Education, General Studies in Biology, and Pre-Physical Therapy.

Students who wish to prepare for professional or graduate school require 8 credits in General Biology courses, plus a minimum of 34 credits in upper-class Biology courses for the B.S. degree.This includes all of the following:

Required
BIOL 111General Biology I4
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 113
BIOL 112General Biology II4
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 114
BIOL 113General Biology Laboratory I0
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 111
BIOL 114General Biology Laboratory II0
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 112
BIOL 217Genetics4
BIOL 223Ecology4
BIOL 231Evolution4
BIOL 404
BIOL 414
Biology Colloquium I
and Biology Colloquium II
2
Cell & Molecular Biology (choose any two 4-credit courses)8
Microbiology
Developmental Biology
Cellular BioChemistry/Physiology
Molecular Cell Biology
Histology
Neurobiology
Tissue Culture
Immunology
Organismal Biology (choose any two 4-credit courses)8
Comparative Chordate Anatomy
Invertebrate Zoology
Plant Biology
Animal Physiology
Animal Behavior
Marine Biology
Freshwater Ecology
Estuarine and Coastal Ecology
Electives (choose combination of courses to total at least 4 credits)4
any 1 of Cell & Molecular or Organismal
Anatomy and Physiology I
Anatomy and Physiology II
Research in Biology for Juniors
Research in Biology for Juniors
Research in Biology for Seniors
Research in Biology for Seniors
Advances in Nutrition
Independent Study in Biology for Juniors
Independent Study in Biology
Internship for Juniors
Internship for Seniors
Special Topics: in Biology
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 111
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 111
Pre-, and co-requisite BIOL 114
BIOL 207 prerequisite
4
4 credits4
Total Credits50

Students plan an individual program of study with their Biology courses and free electives after consultation with an advisor in the Biology Department.

In order to pursue any specific area of study, it is essential that a student plan his/her proposed course sequence in close consultation with his/her Biology faculty advisor and the Chair. For Biology majors to take 200, 300, and 400 level courses, a C or better grades in General Biology I (BIOL 111 and BIOL 113) and General Biology II (BIOL 112 and BIOL 114) or the equivalents are required.

Pre-Medical-Dental

Students are urged to take:

BIOL 302Developmental Biology4
BIOL 318Advances in Nutrition2
BIOL 405Neurobiology4
BIOL 225Microbiology4
BIOL 426Immunology4

Pre-Professional

Students are urged to take:

BIOL 302Developmental Biology4
BIOL 405Neurobiology4
BIOL 416Tissue Culture4
BIOL 225Microbiology4

 Environmental Biology

Students are urged to take:

BIOL 304Invertebrate Zoology4
BIOL 326Animal Behavior4
BIOL 409Marine Biology4
BIOL 431Freshwater Ecology4
BIOL 432Estuarine and Coastal Ecology4

Education Studies

Students are urged to take:

BIOL 207Anatomy and Physiology I4
BIOL 208Anatomy and Physiology II4
BIOL 302Developmental Biology4
BIOL 304Invertebrate Zoology4
BIOL 318Advances in Nutrition2
BIOL 326Animal Behavior4
BIOL 409Marine Biology4

Pre-Physical Therapy

Students are urged to take:

BIOL 207Anatomy and Physiology I (prerequisite)4
BIOL 208Anatomy and Physiology II4
BIOL 306Physiology of Exercise3
BIOL 309Anatomical Kinesiology2
BIOL 375Internship for Juniors2
BIOL 441Cardiovascular Biology3
BIOL 443Basic Electrocardiography2
BIOL 445Therapeutic, Prescriptions, Exercises, and Modalities2

Cognate Requirements

B.S. Degree

CHEM 101
CHEM 102
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
6
CHEM 103General Chemistry Laboratory I1
CHEM 104General Chemistry Laboratory II1
CHEM 319
CHEM 320
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
CHEM 323
CHEM 324
Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory II
4
MATH 155
MATH 156
Calculus for the Life Sciences I
and Calculus for the Life Sciences II
6
PHYS 107
PHYS 108
Introduction to Physics I
and Introduction to Physics II
8
Total Credits32

B.A. Degree

Recognizing that many students have a distinct interest in Biology, yet possess diverse and non-traditional career goals, the Department offers the B.A. degree with a relatively large number of electives. Students should use these electives to either minor or concentrate in any of the humanities, social science or business disciplines. This program does not prepare students for medical/professional school, graduate studies in Biology, or physical therapy programs unless other prerequisites are met. The program is intended to help students obtain employment in medical and pharmaceutical sales, medical writing, careers in public health and safety and the insurance industry as it relates to health care.

Cognate Requirements

B.A. Degree

CHEM 101
CHEM 102
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
6
CHEM 103General Chemistry Laboratory I1
CHEM 104General Chemistry Laboratory II1
CHEM 319
CHEM 320
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
MATH 100Pre-Calculus Mathematics3
MATH 230Elementary Statistics3
PHYS 107
PHYS 108
Introduction to Physics I
and Introduction to Physics II
8
Total Credits28

Minors

15 credits in Biology courses planned in consultation with and approval of the Chair of the Biology Department.  Eight of these credits must be the General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-114).  The remaining credits must be chosen from courses that satisfy B.S. major requirements.

Grade Requirements

Majors and minors must attain a minimum grade of C in all biology courses. Prerequisites for Upper Level Biology Courses: C or better in General Biology I (BIOL 111 and BIOL 113) and C or better in General Biology II (BIOL 112 and BIOL 114) or the equivalents are required.

The following courses are offered for and are restricted to students majoring in departments other than Biology. Under no circumstances will students majoring in Biology receive major credit for the following courses:

BIOL 103Introduction to Biology3
BIOL 115
BIOL 116
Principles of Biology I
and Principles of Biology II
4
BIOL 117
BIOL 118
Principles of Biology Laboratory I
and Principles of Biol Lab II
4
BIOL 207
BIOL 208
Anatomy and Physiology I
and Anatomy and Physiology II
8
BIOL 221Introductory Nutrition3
BIOL 222Biology for Engineers3
BIOL 306Physiology of Exercise3
BIOL 309Anatomical Kinesiology2
BIOL 441Cardiovascular Biology3
BIOL 443Basic Electrocardiography2
BIOL 445Therapeutic, Prescriptions, Exercises, and Modalities2

Registration for Advanced Courses

Permission of the academic advisor of the Biology Department is required for registration in all courses at the 300 and 400 levels.

A student may take 9 Biology credits in Research and/or Independent Study. However, only 3 of these credits may be in Independent Study.

Bachelor of Science in Biology

First Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL 1114BIOL 1124
BIOL 1130BIOL 1140
MATH 1553CHEM 1023
CHEM 1013CHEM 1041
CHEM 1031MATH 1563
SCI 1001PHIL 2133
ENGL 1103RELS 1103
 SCI 1011
 15 18
Second Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
MLL3BIOL 2314
BIOL 2234CMPT 1553
BIOL 2174CHEM 3203
CHEM 3193CHEM 3242
CHEM 3232MLL 3
 Elective3
 16 18
Third Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Cell Elective4BIOL Organismal Elective4
HIST 1503PHYS 1084
ENGL 1503PHIL 1503
RELS Catholic Studies3Social Sciences3
PHYS 1074 
 17 14
Fourth Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Organismal Elective4BIOL Cell Elective4
BIOL Elective2BIOL Elective2
RELS Global/Contemporary3BIOL 4141
Social Sciences3MUSC 150 or ART 1503
Elective3Electives 6
BIOL 4041 
 16 16
Total Credits: 130

Bachelor of Arts in Biology 

First Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL 1114RELS 1103
BIOL 1130MLL 3
MLL3BIOL 1124
CHEM 1013BIOL 1140
CHEM 1031CHEM 1023
SCI 1001CHEM 1041
ENGL 1103PHIL 2133
 15 17
Second Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL 2174BIOL 2314
CHEM 3193CHEM 3203
MATH 1003Social Sciences3
CMPT 1553MATH 2303
BIOL 2234HIST 1503
 17 16
Third Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Elective3BIOL Elective3
PHYS 1074Free Elective*3
Free Elective*3ENGL 1503
Social Studies3PHYS 1084
MUSC 150 ( or ART 150)3PHIL 1503
 16 16
Fourth Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Elective4BIOL Elective4
RELS Catholic Studies3BIOL 4141
Free Electives*10RELS Global/Contemporary3
BIOL 4041Free Electives*6
 18 14
Total Credits: 129

Courses

BIOL 099. Biology Bridge Course. 0 Credits.

This is a Pre-Freshman Biology course designed to introduce students to the nature of modern biology as it is taught at Manhattan College and to prepare them to be successful in General Biology. Using a combination of classroom techniques, including interactive lectures, problem-solving and facilitated discussions, this course focuses on selected topics that are normally covered in the General Biology majors courses. In addition, this course seeks to develop transferable skills that incorporate successful strategies for the deep learning and application of modern Biology, such as critical thinking and reading, effective note-taking, and exam preparation.

BIOL 103. Introduction to Biology. 3 Credits.

A basic study of the principles and applications of biology in contemporary life. Two lectures and one two-hour laboratory period.

BIOL 104. Introduction to Biology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

A basic study of the principles and applications of biology in contemporary life. One two hour laboratory period.

BIOL 111. General Biology I. 4 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 113.

BIOL 112. General Biology II. 4 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in BIOL 111 and BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 114.

BIOL 113. General Biology Laboratory I. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 111.

BIOL 114. General Biology Laboratory II. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in BIOL 111 & BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 112.

BIOL 115. Principles of Biology I. 2 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution with emphasis on the human organism. Two 1-hr lectures and one discussion period. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 115-BIOL 118) is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 117.

BIOL 116. Principles of Biology II. 2 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology with emphasis on the human organism. Two 1-hr lectures and one discussion period. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 115-BIOL 118) is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Prerequisite: BIOL 115 & BIOL 117. Co-requisite: BIOL 118.

BIOL 117. Principles of Biology Laboratory I. 2 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution with emphasis on the human organism. One 3-hr laboratory. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 115-BIOL 118) is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 115.

BIOL 118. Principles of Biol Lab II. 2 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology with emphasis on the human organism. One 3-hr laboratory. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 115-BIOL 118) is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Prerequisites: BIOL 115 & BIOL 117. Co-requisite: BIOL 116.

BIOL 119. General Biology II. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 112 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in BIOL 111 and BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 114. Offered: Fall/Spring.

BIOL 120. General Biology II Laboratory. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 112 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in BIOL 111 & BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 112. Offered: Fall/Spring.

BIOL 121. General Biology I Honors. 4 Credits.

General Biology I is a foundation-level course that is a prerequisite for a second-level course, General Biology II. Although the topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 111, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Fall. Co-requisite: BIOL 123.

BIOL 122. General Biology II Honors. 4 Credits.

General Biology II Honors is a second semester sequence of BIOL 121. It is a foundation-level course that examines the relationship between organisms. Although the topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 112, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Spring semester.

BIOL 123. General Biology I Laboratory Honors. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 113, but in BIOL 123 students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Fall. Co-requisite: BIOL 121.

BIOL 124. General Biology II Lab Honors. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the relationship between organisms. One 3-hr laboratory. The topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 114. In BIOL 124, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 125. General Biology I. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 111 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog.Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 126.

BIOL 126. General Biology I Laboratory. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med.This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 113 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 125.

BIOL 207. Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Credits.

Structure and functions of the organs and systems of the human body with expanded coverage of topics such as mechanisms of disease. Topics include: biology of the cell, histology, and skeletal, muscular & nervous systems. Two 1-hr lectures and one 3-hr laboratory. Offered alternating semesters. Biology majors in the Education studies and Pre-Physical Therapy studies may take this course for Biology credit.

BIOL 208. Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Credits.

Structure and functions of the organs and systems of the human body with expanded coverage of topics such as mechanisms of disease. Topics include: digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive and endocrine systems. Three 1-hr lectures. Offered alternating semesters. Biology majors in the Education studies and Pre-Physical Therapy studies may take this course for Biology credit.

BIOL 209. Anatomy And Physiology Lab I. 0 Credits.

BIOL 210. Anatomy & Physiology II Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 217. Genetics. 4 Credits.

Principles of chromosomal, molecular, quantitative, population, and evolutionary genetics. Three 1-hr lectures, one problem period, and one two-hour laboratory period. Prerequisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 113 or consent of the instructor. Fall.

BIOL 218. Genetics - Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 220. Ecology Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 221. Introductory Nutrition. 3 Credits.

A survey of human nutritional needs throughout the life cycle. Recommended for Nursing, Physical Education, and Liberal Arts majors. Three lectures. Fall, Spring.

BIOL 222. Biology for Engineers. 3 Credits.

The general principles of modern science and biology, with focus on engineering solutions to biological problems, including pollution, bio-remediation, genetic engineering and risk assessment. Two one-hour lectures and one two-hour lab per week.

BIOL 223. Ecology. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. Survey of ecological principles at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems with emphasis on quantitative analysis. Three 1-hr lectures and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 111, 112, 113,114 or consent of the instructor. Fall.

BIOL 224. BiologyForEngineers Laboratory. 0 Credits.

The general principles of modern science and biology, with focus on engineering solutions to biological problems, including pollution, bioremediation, genetic engineering and risk assessment. One 2 hour lab per week. Co-Requisite: BIOL 222.

BIOL 225. Microbiology. 4 Credits.

Introduction to microbial physiology, genetics, and ecology with an emphasis on the role of microbes in the environment and infectious disease. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period per week. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112,BIOL 113, BIOL 114 and BIOL 217 or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 226.

BIOL 226. Microbiology Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 231. Evolution. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the central organizing theme in biology. Examination of the basic mechanisms for evolution at a variety of scales, from the molecular to ecological levels. Potential topics include: microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution. Three 1-hr lectures and one three-hour laboratory period. Prerequisite: BIOL 111, 112, 113, 114 or consent of the instructor. Spring.

BIOL 232. Evolution Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Dynamic aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of cells, including thermodynamics, oxidation/reduction, respiration, metabolic pathways, enzymes, membranes, cell signaling and cellular control mechanisms. One 3 hour lab per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 111, BIOL 114 and CHEM 319.

BIOL 301. Comparative Chordate Anatomy. 4 Credits.

An anatomical survey of chordate evolution, with an emphasis on human anatomy, where homologous structures are examined in diverse chordate organisms. Form, function, and phylogeny are explored from worm-like chordates and sharks to dinosaurs, birds, as well as humans and other mammals. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 313.

BIOL 302. Developmental Biology. 4 Credits.

A study of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the development of various organisms. Emphasis will be placed on fertilization events, spatial organization, pattern formation and gene action in development. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr hour laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 303. Plant Biology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Physiological, biochemical and anatomical aspects of plants will be studied in the context of their native environments. The molecular, hormonal and physiological basis for plant adaptations will be stressed. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 304. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Credits.

Morphological and physiological characteristics of selected invertebrates and consideration of their ecological relationships. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 305. Plant Biology. 4 Credits.

Physiological, biochemical and anatomical aspects of plants will be studied in the context of their native environments. The molecular, hormonal and physiological basis for plant adaptations will be stressed. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 303.

BIOL 306. Physiology of Exercise. 3 Credits.

The investigation of human physiological responses to exercise in relation to age, sex, physical fitness, and environmental conditions. Two lectures and two laboratory hours. Fall.

BIOL 307. Physiology Of Exercise Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 309. Anatomical Kinesiology. 2 Credits.

This course is designed to provide the student with basic scientific information and understanding of human motion within the areas of anatomy, neuromuscular physiology, and biomechanics, and to expose the student to diagnosis and prescribe proper instruction in sports medicine and physical education programs. Class consists of a 2 hour lecture combined with a 2 hour laboratory experience. Accepted for major credit only for students in the Exercise Science concentration. Pre-requisite: BIOL 207 and 208. Co-requisite: BIOL 315.

BIOL 310. Research in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114.

BIOL 311. Research in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114.

BIOL 312. Advanced Biology for Biochemists. 3 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular function and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra- and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite BIOL 217 and CHEM 323.

BIOL 313. Compar Chordate Anatomy-Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 314. Kinesiology for Dancers. 3 Credits.

Elements of human motion within the areas of anatomy, neuromuscular physiology and biomechanics. Proper procedures in performance art with special reference to dance. Two lectures and one two-hour lab per week.

BIOL 315. Anatomical Kinesiology- Lab. 0 Credits.

This course is designed to provide the student with basic scientific information and understanding of human motion within the areas of anatomy, neuromuscular physiology, and biomechanics, and to expose the student to diagnosis and prescribe proper instruction in sports medicine and physical education programs. Two hour laboratory experience. Accepted for major credit only for students in the Exercise Science concentration. Pre-requisite: BIOL 207 and BIOL 208. Co-requisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 317. Research in Biology for Juniors. 3 Credits.

Investigation of challening problems. Four hours per credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 318. Advances in Nutrition. 2 Credits.

Recent developments in human nutrition with emphasis on clinical conditions. Recommended for upper-class pre-health professional students. One lecture hour and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 319. Cellular BioChemistry/Physiology. 4 Credits.

Dynamic aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of the cell, including thermodynamics, oxidation/reduction, respiration, enzymes, membranes, cell signaling and metabolic pathways. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, BIOL 217, and CHEM 319, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 323.

BIOL 320. Animal Physiology. 4 Credits.

Discovery of the major principles of animal (especially humans) functions. Topics include (1) procurement and use of energy, (2) growth, (3) internal organ functions, reproduction, and adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on tissue, organ and organism functions. Various taxa will be examined in lab, especially humans. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 324.

BIOL 321. Molecular Cell Biology. 4 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular function and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra- and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 217 or CHEM 433, or consent of instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 322.

BIOL 322. Molecular Cell Biology Lab. 0 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular functions and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra-and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. One three hour laboratory per week. Spring.

BIOL 323. Cellular Biochemistry/Physiology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Dynamic aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of cells, including thermodynamics, oxidation/reduction, respiration, metabolic pathways, enzymes, membranes, cell signaling and cellular control mechanisms. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 324. Animal Physiology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Discovery of the major principles of animal (especially humans) functions. Topics include (1) procurement and use of energy. (2) growth, (3) internal organ functions, reproduction, and adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on tissue, organ and organism functions. Various taxa will be examined in lab, especially humans. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 326. Animal Behavior. 4 Credits.

The biological basis of animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory or field work period.

BIOL 327. Animal Behavior Lab. 0 Credits.

One 3-hr laboratory or field work period companion to the BIOL 326 lecture. (The biological basis of animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective).

BIOL 335. Developmental Biology Lab. 0 Credits.

The laboratory will focus on the fundamental techniques used by developmental biologists. One three-hour laboratory per week. Corequisite BIOL 302.

BIOL 360. Independent Study in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Independent study of an area in biology. Up to ten hours per week, including a conference with sponsor, plus a final paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 375. Internship for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to one of the areas of biology. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor and the chair.

BIOL 400. Research in Biology. 1 Credit.

I Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 401. Histology. 4 Credits.

Cellular structure and ultrastructure of mammalian tissues and organs utilizing light and electron microscopy. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 404. Biology Colloquium I. 1 Credit.

This course is the first half of the Biology majors capstone in which students will eventually present a full-length document on a biological subject, that will either be a review paper or a research paper. Training in reading and comprehension of scientific papers, understanding statistical analysis issues, constructing a reference section, writing for science and power-point constructoin issues. Four weeks of journal club sessions. Proposal preparation for a monograph. One discussion period. Offered: Fall.

BIOL 405. Neurobiology. 4 Credits.

An examination of the basic principles of the nervous system including the cellular and molecular biology of the neuron, synaptic transmission, sensory and motor systems and their integration. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 217 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 406. Special Topics: in Biology. 4 Credits.

Current problems and studies in biology. Consult department chair for topic. Four lecture hours OR three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 407. Neurobiology - Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 408. Sustainable Agriculture. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on crop management, conservation agriculture, depletion of resources, and global challenges caused by climate change. Prerequisites are CHEM 101, BIOL 111,112,113,114. Offered in Fall semester.

BIOL 409. Marine Biology. 4 Credits.

Principles of marine ecology in an oceanic environment with emphasis on tropical communities. Three lecture hours per week are held on campus, but the field portion of the course is taught during the mid-semester recess in the Caribbean. Students in this course will be charged an additional lab fee to cover the transportation, room & board, and activities costs associated with the field trip. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 410. Research in Biology for Seniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall.

BIOL 411. Research in Biology for Seniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 413. Research in Biology for Seniors. 3 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Five hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 414. Biology Colloquium II. 1 Credit.

This course is the second part of the Biology majors capstone course. Study and discussion of biological topics, exposure to various presentation styles by external speakers, sitting in for the Biology major field test, completion and presentation of a monograph. One discussion period. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 416. Tissue Culture. 4 Credits.

Principles and methods of animal tissue and cell culture with the emphasis on mammalian culture of cell lines and primary culture from rat tissues. The course stresses laboratory techniques including maintenance of sterility and culture conditions, use of laminar flow hood, phase contrast microscopy and photomicroscopy, preparation and contents of a variety of media, cryogenic storage of cells, indirect immunofluorescence, monoclonal antibodies, and biochemical characterization of cell specific markers. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 426. Immunology. 4 Credits.

Study of fundamental properties of antigens and antibodies. Theories of antibody production, tolerance, transplantation immunity, autoimmunity, tumor immunology, and immunochemistry. Introduction to antibody-mediated and cell-mediated reactions. Four lecture hours. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, BIOL 217, BIOL 321, and BIOL 322.

BIOL 431. Freshwater Ecology. 4 Credits.

Study of the ecology of freshwater communities, including physical, chemical, and biotic components with emphasis on a comparison of major freshwater systems. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr field or laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 432. Estuarine and Coastal Ecology. 4 Credits.

Studies of estuarine and near-shore marine ecosystems with emphasis on local temperate habitats. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr field or laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 441. Cardiovascular Biology. 3 Credits.

Anatomical, physiological, pathological and nutritional aspects of the human cardiovascular system. Three lectures and a monograph based on library research or supervised laboratory experience at a hospital cardiac stress testing laboratory.

BIOL 443. Basic Electrocardiography. 2 Credits.

Provides background needed for administering clinical exercise tests and interpreting their results, with strict attention to the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Biology majors in the Pre-Physical Therapy studies may take this course for Biology credit. Pre-requisite: BIOL 306.

BIOL 445. Therapeutic, Prescriptions, Exercises, and Modalities. 2 Credits.

Understanding prescriptions for the rehabilitation of specific disorders through the use of exercise and modalities. Two lectures. Fall.

BIOL 460. Independent Study in Biology. 1-3 Credit.

Independent Study in Biology. Independent study of an area in biology. Ten hours per week including a conference with sponsor. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Fall, Spring.

BIOL 475. Internship for Seniors. 3 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to their area of biology. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Prerequisites: Senior status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor or the Chair.

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