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Dr. Roksana Badruddoja
Chair of the Department

Sociology, the scientific study of human social behavior, examines the processes and patterns of social interaction; forms of social organization; and the influences of social groups, institutions, and social structure upon human behavior.

The goals of the department are to develop the sociological imagination, including a familiarity with sociological concepts, theories, methods, and research findings; to foster knowledge of, and respect for, diverse social systems and cultures; and to promote global awareness, community service, and social justice.

The Department prepares students for careers in social service, law, administration in government or business, social research and data analysis, criminal justice, urban planning, immigration services, and related fields. Internships are available for students to explore career interests and apply knowledge in field experiences.


Requirements for a Major in Sociology

All majors must complete 33 credits, including the following:

Sociology Core:
SOC 220Social Problems (taken first or second year, incoming semester for transfer students) Required and prerequisite3
Structural Inequalities Distribution (one of the following courses taken sophomore or junior year)3
Codes of Gender
Race and Resistance
Social Inequalities
SOC 307Research Methods (taken junior year)3
SOC 324Sociological Theories (taken junior year)3
Advanced Methods Distribution (one of the following courses taken Fall senior year)3
Advanced Topics in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Advanced Qualitative Methods
Introduction to Social Network Analysis
SOC 416Seminar in Sociology (taken Spring senior year)3
Fifteen additional credits from Sociology15
Total Credits33

The Department also recommends that students take a course in statistics, preferably PSYC 214 Statistics and Research Methods I.

A minimum grade of C is required for all courses in the major.

General study in the field of sociology helps to prepare students for graduate school and/or a wide array of future careers in research, teaching, human resource management, civil service, and others.

Sociology majors with more specific interests in the field may focus their study by electing a concentration. Students may also choose to minor in sociology, cultural anthropology, or geography.


Sociology majors interested in criminology and criminal justice; social services; or geography may choose one of the following areas of concentration after consultation with a departmental advisor. If a student elects a concentration, then they must meet the following course requirements:


Recommended for students with career interests in criminal justice, law, community activism, and human rights advocacy. Majors must complete the following:

Sociology Core18
SOC 270Criminology3
Two courses from Category A and Two courses from Category B (based on student area of interest)12
Category A
Mass Incarceration and Collateral Consequences
Police & Society
Juvenile Justice
Criminal Justice Administration
Modern American Gangs
White Collar Crime
Current Issues in Criminal Justice
Category B
Gender, Crime & Justice
Race and Resistance
Sociology of Deviance
Family Law
Anthropology of Drugs
Law and Society
Total Credits33

Students are encouraged to take additional courses outside their area of concentration.

Social Services

Recommended for students interested in social-service related careers. Majors must complete the following:

Sociology Core18
SOC 210Introduction to Social Services3
SOC 312Social Service Practice3
Three of the following are required (in addition to the Structural Inequalities course chosen for the Sociology Core):9
Social Problems
Codes of Gender
Race and Resistance
Urban Sociology
The Family
Sociology of Deviance
Anthropology of Drugs
Practicing Empowerment
Culture, Health, and Illness
Total Credits33

The Department strongly recommends that all students in the Social Services Concentration complete a faculty-supervised internship for elective credit in a local social service agency: Sociology 475. Internship 3cr. Assistance with locating a suitable placement is available at the Center for Career Development.


Recommended for students seeking a greater understanding of how humans interact with built and natural environments as well as those interested in developing mapping, geographic information systems, and other spatial analytical skills. Majors must complete the following:

Sociology Core18
SOC 296 Introduction to Human Geography3
Four of the following are required:12
Identities of New York City
Migration, Globalization, and Culture
Contemporary Latin American Development
Power and Conflict
Political Economy of Global Migration
Sustainable Development
Anatomy of a US City
Political Ecology
Total Credits33

Students are encouraged to take additional courses outside their area of concentration.



Minors in Sociology must take 15 credits chosen in consultation with a departmental advisor. Students are required to take:

Social Problems (SOC 220); 1 course dealing with social differentiation: Codes of Gender (SOC 290), Capitalism (SOC 295), Race and Resistance (SOC 302), or Social Inequalities (SOC 304); and 3 additional Sociology courses.

SOC 150 Roots: Sociology, SOC 375 Internship, and SOC 416 Seminar in Sociology do not fulfill minor requirements.

A minimum grade of C is required for all courses in the minor.

Cultural Anthropology

Recommended for students who wish to supplement any major with the comparative and social scientific insights offered by Cultural Anthropology. Minors must take 15 credits of the following:

SOC 202Introduction to Cultural Anthropology3
Four of the following courses:12
Urban Anthropology
Identities of New York City
Visual Anthropology
Anthropology of Drugs
Societies and Cultures of Latin America
Workers and the Workplace
Culture, Health, and Illness
Research in Anthropology
Total Credits15

A minimum grade of C is required for all courses in the minor.


Recommended for students interested in GIS and other spatial analysis skills, cartography/mapping, data mining, and spatial data visualization. Minors must take 15 credits of the following:

Two Required Courses:6
Introduction to GIS
Telling Stories with Maps
Advanced Topics in Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Three (or more) of the following Geographic Theory Electives Courses:9
Identities of New York City
Migration, Globalization, and Culture
Contemporary Latin American Development
Introduction to Human Geography
Power and Conflict
Political Economy of Global Migration
Sustainable Development
Anatomy of a US City
Political Ecology
Total Credits15

A minimum grade of C is required for all courses in the minor.


SOC 150. Roots: Sociology. 3 Credits.

An explanation and critical examination of selected concepts in the social sciences. Students examine the logic and methods of social science research and engage in analysis of contemporary social issues from the perspectives of the disciplines of sociology and anthropology. (Not open to students who completed SOC 201.).

SOC 153. Roots: Sociology - FYS. 3 Credits.

An explanation and critical examination of selected concepts in the social sciences. Students examine the logic and methods of social science research and engage in analysis of contemporary social issues from the perspectives of the disciplines of sociology and anthropology. (Not open to students who completed SOC 201.).

SOC 201. Introduction to Sociology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the nature and scope of the science of sociology. Emphasis on societies, social structures and institutions, social groups, and on the various social processes associated with social organization, socialization, and social change. (Not open to students who have completed SOC 150.).

SOC 202. Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the basic concepts of cultural anthropology. Such concepts are related to subsistence, economy, ecology, social organization and ideology. Emphasis will be given to problems in contemporary/complex societies as well as primitive/simple societies. A comparative and evolutionary perspective is used throughout the case study of Western and non-Western societies.

SOC 204. Urban Anthropology. 3 Credits.

Urban anthropology is concerned with the origin, development and evolution of cities as well as with the description, comparison and analysis of urban life and cultures.

SOC 205. Urban Environments. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the complexities of urban life and space emphasizing the interaction of socio-cultural, political, economic, natural, and built environments. The course will examine the factors that influence urbanization, the distinct patterns of soical interaction that typify urban life, motivations for various patterns/strategies of urban development, and the effect of globalization on urban expansion and decline. These points of emphasis are founded on the understanding of cities as unique environments with distinct challenges to social organization, economic growth and inequality, and sustainability.

SOC 208. Anthropology of Food. 3 Credits.

This course considers food from an anthropological perspective. Attention is given to the relationship between food as a cultural construct and ecology, ethnicity and race, social class, symbolic significance, political-economic processes, colonization and globalization, competitive dietary patterns, analysis of particular commoditites, and power.

SOC 209. Identities of New York City. 3 Credits.

American identity is tied to New York City. This course explores identity formation, assimilation, and adaptation through time and across the NYC landscape. We unpack constructions of "normal" and how intersections of class, gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, language, and ableism can influence personal and group experiences. Students will leave the course understanding the geography of NYC, how populations have changed across the landscape over time, and how the built environment and people co-produce identities in space.

SOC 210. Introduction to Social Services. 3 Credits.

The foundation of social work as a profession, its historical and philosophical development, its social purpose, value assumptions, and theoretical base. A review of the various typed of social service practice. Case studies and analyses of programs, policies and issues.

SOC 211. Mass Media and Popular Culture. 3 Credits.

A social history of mass media in the American context and an exploration of the key theoretical perspectives that explain mass communications and popular culture. The impact of media such as newspapers, books, magazines, television, film, radio broadcasting and the countless means of mass communication transmitted through the internet is examined from a sociological perspective.

SOC 212. Migration, Globalization, and Culture. 3 Credits.

An introductory examination of how immigration/emigration is shaped by global political-economic structures. The goal is to understand the connections between global structures and local cultural responses. Attention will be devoted to a wide variety of social reactions ranging from inclusive (multiculturalism) to exclusive (ethnic nationalism/nativism) responses.

SOC 217. Visual Anthropology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the history of ethnography, the politics of image representation of the other and the sub-discipline of visual anthropology. A variety of anthropological concepts are explored by using ethnographic pictures.

SOC 220. Social Problems. 3 Credits.

At its' core, sociology is the study of social problems. This course develops a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of social problems using contemporary sociological approaches. The specific problems treated each semester can vary but typically include issues such as poverty, environmental challenges, state and corporate misconduct, racism, immigration policies, sexism, human trafficking, labor problems, national security, terrorism and others.

SOC 225. Telling Stories with Maps. 3 Credits.

This course introduces the concepts and components of geospatial thinking through a geographic information system (GIS}, exploring how to visualize a story using maps. We work in Tableau, Google Earth, and ESRl's ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS Pro, and ArcMap software packages. Course topics include story design, spatial data acquisition, projection systems, spatial analysis, and cartographic design.

SOC 250. Introduction to GIS. 3 Credits.

An introduction to geographic information systems including mapping and social spatial analysis. Course topics include spatial data acquisition, projection systems, geodatabase design, spatial query and display, spatioal analysis and modelling, and cartographic design.

SOC 262. Contemporary Latin American Development. 3 Credits.

Focuses on development in modern Latin America and its relationship to migration in and out of the region. The main paradigms in the sociology of development are used as a basis for specific case studies, illustrating the interrelated dynamics of poverty, violence, trafficking, and human displacement. Particular attention is given to popular movements and alternative models of development in the region.

SOC 270. Criminology. 3 Credits.

A survey of varieties of criminal activity, data on crime and sociological explanations of crime and criminality in relation to social structural, institutional and cultural factors. Traditional and contemporary policies for controlling crime are explored in this course and a critical analysis of the relationship between crime, social inequality and social justice is developed.

SOC 273. Mass Incarceration and Collateral Consequences. 3 Credits.

A historical and contemporary investigation of offender management and treatment. Critical theories and alternative methods of corrections are examined and the effects of institutionalization are discussed.

SOC 275. Police & Society. 3 Credits.

A socio-historical and comparative analysis of the structure and organization of contemporary policing. Students will develop a critical analysis of how law enforcement agencies interact with society.

SOC 290. Codes of Gender. 3 Credits.

As approach to the construction, reproduction, persistence, and resistance to gender inequality across multiple domains, using comparative and transnational approaches.

SOC 294. Gender, Crime & Justice. 3 Credits.

The course will explore: the evolution of gender in the context of criminology, female offending and related criminological theories, the frequency and nature of female offending, how women and girls are processed through the criminal justice system, how women and girls are punished, the victimization of women and girls by men, and the role of female employees in the criminal justice system.

SOC 295. Capitalism. 3 Credits.

An examination of capitalism as a social system in the modern world. The course examines the history of capitalism, political economic theories of how it functions, and examines the ways in which capitalism influences human activity on a global scale.

SOC 296. Introduction to Human Geography. 3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the field of human geography. We journey through the discipline’s history and origins, modern geography and the scientific revolution, to postmodernism and GIS science. The course will cover geographic theory, including the concept of place and its impact on identity formation, the links between urban and rural spaces, regional interdependencies, among other topics.

SOC 302. Race and Resistance. 3 Credits.

This course involves discussing, reading, and examining cultural artifacts, social movements, and theorizations around the categories of race and ethnicity. It aims for re-thinking these categories through their grounding in particular localities, practices, truths and histories.

SOC 303. Urban Planning. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the principles and techniques of urban planning. Practical application of knowledge from many disciplines in forming physical design for urban spaces. Consideration of demographic, political, economic, and legal factors in the planning process.

SOC 304. Social Inequalities. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the class structure of the United States. Economic and non-economic characteristics of different classes. How class status affects one's life (physical and mental health, food and shelter, education, crime, and political power). The factors influencing what class one ends up in adulthood. The impact of welfare reform. Variations in class inequality across societies and across different time periods in the U.S. Varying explanations of and solutions to class inequality.

SOC 305. Urban Sociology. 3 Credits.

An examination of urbanization and the structure of modern cities. Selected issues such as urban decline, gentrification, ethnic and racial change, challenges facing city neighborhoods, business and urban cultural expression will be considered through field visits, readings and reports.

SOC 306. The Family. 3 Credits.

The nature and structure of the family as a group and as a social institution. Cross-cultural, historical and contemporary variations in family structure and interaction. Patterns in mate selection, marriage, parenthood and divorce, and their correlation with such variables as income, ethnicity, religion, and education.

SOC 307. Research Methods. 3 Credits.

The logic and skills of social scientific research. Research design, conceptualization and measurement, sampling, and data analysis. Student experience in data collection and analysis.

SOC 308. Juvenile Justice. 3 Credits.

Sociological perspectives on the nature, causes, and prevention of delinquency and the application of criminal justice to minors.

SOC 310. Sociology of Deviance. 3 Credits.

Analyzes the relationship between social power and the dynamic process of labeling certain acts and groups as deviant. A survey of theoretical explanations of deviance is offered as the course explores how individuals and groups respond to being labelled deviant. Specific attention is given to social policies intended to control deviance and the social consequences of those policies.

SOC 311. Postmodern Societies. 3 Credits.

A critical examination of theories and practices of social organization in the contemporary world. This course examines "how times have changed" and led to contemporary cultural and political conflicts over identity, authority, social norms. Theories of modernity and postmodernity will inform more current theoretical understandings of the individual's role in constructing and organizing social relationships.

SOC 312. Social Service Practice. 3 Credits.

An introduction to basic social service methods with an emphasis on the special type of listening, utilized by social workers. The focus will be on engaging and helping individuals, couples and families. Students will learn about the helping process, starting with the initial phase and including assessment and treatment planning.

SOC 313. Family Law. 3 Credits.

This course will examine the law governing the definition of family and the rights and duties of family members to each other. In particular, the conversation will focus upon marriage and cover such topics as restrictions on who may marry, and issues incident to dissolution of marriage (property division, spousal and child support, and child custody).

SOC 315. Special Topics: in Sociology. 3 Credits.

New course offerings in any area of sociology. Topics will be listed in the pre-registration booklets. Course outlines will be posted in the sociology department before the preregistration periods.

SOC 316. Special Topics: in Sociology. 3 Credits.

New course offerings in any area of sociology. Topics will be listed in the pre-registration booklets. Course outlines will be posted in the sociology department before the preregistration periods.

SOC 317. Anthropology of Drugs. 3 Credits.

People at different levels of societal development (e.g. hunting, gathering, agricultural, industrial and post industrial societies) have integrated certain 'drugs' into their cultures. This course explores the use of drugs cross-culturally, focusing on their political, economic, and cultural ramifications. Qualitative and quantitative data are used in the course.

SOC 318. Community Organizing for Social Change. 3 Credits.

Community organizing is a strategy that has empowered individuals and communities to make social change. It has been a major factor in shaping the Bronx, the college's home, as it is today. The class will provide a historical perspective on community organizing and assist in developing skills critical to organizing, such as discussing the role of the organizer, identifying and researching issues, developing leaders and developing an organizing campaign. The class would include opportunities for real-world experience with a local community organization. 3 cr. (Students meet two hours in class weekly and have additional meeting time obligations in the community.) Dept. Chair consent required.

SOC 319. Practicing Empowerment. 3 Credits.

An analysis of social services designed for vulnerable, under-represented and displaced people, such as migrant populations, illegal immigrants, political refugees, and others. A critical and historical evaluation of efforts to engage and advocate for these populations is developed as well as tactics to empower them in todays world.

SOC 324. Sociological Theories. 3 Credits.

A survey of major sociological theories, e.g., functionalism, symbolic interactionism, conflict theory, phenomenology and ethnomethodology, Frankfurt School critical theory, structuralism, postmodernism and others. Special emphasis is given to tracing contemporary approaches back to classical sociologists such as Comte, Durkheim, Marx, Weber, and Mead.

SOC 327. Power and Conflict. 3 Credits.

An examination of the role of power in regulating and subordinating groups within human societies. The concept of power is a multifaceted process that includes forms of economic, political, cultural and discursive control. This requires a look at various theories of power and its role in ordering societies as well as different methods of acquiring, maintaining and losing power. Particular attention will be paid to the motivations for power acquisition and the dynamics of resistance to power structures in both theoretical and applied contexts.

SOC 328. Societies and Cultures of Latin America. 3 Credits.

An introduction to Mesoamerica (Mexico, Central America) South America, and the Caribbean as socio-cultural areas from an anthropological perspective. Native and contemporary cultures, cultural similarities and differences are examined with attention given to the process of sociocultural change, external forces that shape the region, and key issues/themes that consistently surface in Latin American anthropology.

SOC 329. Political Economy of Global Migration. 3 Credits.

An advanced exploration of the political economy of global migration in both historical and contemporary contexts. The course is designed to facilitate an understanding of how political economic conditions motivate immigration and emigration. Issues of particular interest include understanding demand for immigration in countries of high economic growth, understanding characteristics that typify emigration societies and gaining a more comprehensive understanding of how changes in global economic conditions affect changes in migration patterns. Also of interest will be political (policy) methods of managing the integration of migrant populations in receiving countries and the effects of population loss in sending countries.

SOC 331. Workers and the Workplace. 3 Credits.

Work is examined through a historical, comparative lens by using sociological analysis of occupations and global workplace dynamics in industrial and non-industrial settings.

SOC 332. Labor Studies Colloquium. 3 Credits.

An interdisciplinary introduction to the nature, scope, and methodology of Labor Studies. Students will examine the problems and opportunities that a globalized economy poses for worker rights. Guest lectures by Labor Studies faculty members from the humanities and social sciences, business, and health services on specific topics and/or case studies. Site visits to select NYC historical landmarks such as Union Square, The Catholic Worker, and the site of the Triangle Fire.

SOC 333. US Labor Patterns and Movements. 3 Credits.

This course analyzes the patterns of the US labor force and labor movements in the industrial age. Structural factors such as race, class, gender, geography and technology are considered along with the business and political contexts. The question of individual agency on the part of labor leaders is also addressed.

SOC 334. Sustainable Development. 3 Credits.

An examination of the relationship between economic development and environmental crises. The course focuses on theories of development and subsequent theories of sustainable development, as well as examining cases studies of development, environmental degradation, and sustainable development.

SOC 335. Culture, Health, and Illness. 3 Credits.

Application of anthropological and sociological methods and theory in the comparative analysis of illness, medical practices, and health systems. Attention will be given to the interaction of humans with their immediate environment and how humans adapt.

SOC 336. Anatomy of a US City. 3 Credits.

The United States evolved from settlements of hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists, to an industrial revolution powerhouse, to a modem globalization giant. As cities physically change over time, they leave traces of their ecological and sociological histories. This course journeys through time and explores major moments in US history as they relate to the political economy and environment of major cities. Students will gain in-depth knowledge about key forces, such as spatial structure of settlements, migration and immigration, open space and park development, central city change over time, and gentrification.

SOC 338. Schools and Society. 3 Credits.

Examination of how schools in U.S. and abroad are organized and operate, why there are class, race, and sex differences in how much education people get, why better educated people get the best jobs, and what must be done to reform our schools.

SOC 350. Advanced Topics in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 3 Credits.

An advanced examination of mapping and geospatial analysis. The course builds on and moves beyond the topics in Introduction to GIS and includes advanced mapping techniques, spatial analytical methods, and basic coding using ArcGIS and other GIS programs.

SOC 352. Advanced Qualitative Methods. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to train undergraduate students in advanced qualitative research methods in the social sciences. Through this hands-on approach, the course is designed to prepare students to undertake research using ethnographic and intensive interview methods, and deepen their appreciation of the methodological dimensions of published qualitative work.

SOC 353. Political Ecology. 3 Credits.

This course is to introduce students of global change to the analytical framework of political ecology framework, including how axes of power, such as gender, class, and race, further complicate access to and distribution of natural resources. This geographic look at the politics of resource allocation and distribution begins in the post-colonial era to gendered dimensions of climate change and developing country socio-ecological systems.

SOC 354. Introduction to Social Network Analysis. 3 Credits.

An examination of social network analysis including theories and analytical methods of network formation and maintenance. Social media analyses, data mining, and graphical analysis of social network data are among the topics covered.

SOC 361. Criminal Justice Administration. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the various agencies in the administration of justice, the nature of law enforcement, the prisons, court system and rehabilitation agencies.

SOC 362. Modern American Gangs. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the origin, organization, control, and consequences of organized crime in the United States. Emphasis on conflicting theories and current research.

SOC 364. Law and Society. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the development of legal systems in different societies. The legal order in the United States will be discussed within the context of social and political influences on law-making and law enforcement.

SOC 366. White Collar Crime. 3 Credits.

An analysis of white collar crimes in their diverse forms such as professional misconduct, deliberate industrial pollution, corruption and governmental repression of political opponents. Consideration is given to recent trends and ways of exerting control over these crimes.

SOC 367. Crime & Justice in Urban Settings. 3 Credits.

A course examining the particular conditions and issues associated with crime and criminal activities in major cities. The focus of the course is to understand how urban conditions and environments influence crime and criminal activities. Cross-listed with RELS 399.

SOC 369. Current Issues in Criminal Justice. 3 Credits.

Current and controversial issues in criminal justice will be explored and analyzed in this course. The topics will be debated in a classroom setting which will combine traditional lectures with student presentations and full class discussions.

SOC 375. Internship. 3 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to their area of study. Frequent meetings with the internship advisor and a paper are required. Internships are arranged through the Center for Career Development and must be approved in advance by the chair and the Dean of the School of Arts. Elective credit only.

SOC 380. Sport and American Society. 3 Credits.

An interdisciplinary course on the history of American sport from the colonial era to the present. Special emphasis will be given to the economic, sociological, political, and psychological aspects of twentieth century American sport.

SOC 416. Seminar in Sociology. 3 Credits.

This seminar is the "capstone" course for sociology majors and is designed to support an original research project individually completed by each participant. Meeting on a weekly basis, students discuss their findings and engage in a series of peer-review activities. Prerequisites: SOC 304, SOC 307 and SOC 324.

SOC 460. Independent Study. 3 Credits.

A course of study designed for students with particular research interests not covered in the department's curriculum. Topics and methods of research are carefully worked out by the student in consultation with the supervising professor. This course is ordinarily open only to those students who have completed SOC 307 and have a minimum GPA of 3.0. Before registration, topics must be approved by the supervising professor and the department chair.

SOC 461. Independent Study. 3 Credits.

SOC 465. Research in Sociology. 3 Credits.

Participation in current research projects in the department. Permission of Chair and supervising professor required before registration. Prerequisite: SOC 307.

SOC 466. Research in Anthropology. 3 Credits.

Participation in current research projects in the dept. Permission of Chair and supervising professor required before registration. Prerequisite: SOC 307.

SOC 475. Internship. 3 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to their area of study. Frequent meetings with the internship advisor and a paper are required. Internships are arranged through the Center for Career Development and must be approved in advance by the chair and the Dean of the School of Arts. Credit may apply to major.