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Biology

Dr. Bruce J. Shockey
Chair of the Department

As the formal “study of life”, biology is at the crux of many spheres of our existence.  Such domains of biology include our food and nutrition, our health, and the environments in which we live.  Thus, a general knowledge of biology is useful and desirable for people of all walks of life, as well as those who require specialized knowledge for professions in any of the many subspecialties of biology. 

In order to meet the educational needs of students in all majors, as well as biology majors, the Biology Department here at Manhattan College offers a variety of general courses for non-majors as well as more rigorous and specialized studies for our biology majors. In order to ensure a broad training, the curriculum for biology majors includes prescribed areas of required studies, plus some electives in advanced courses of cell and molecular biology, as well as organismal biology. In recognition that the best learning comes via doing, nearly all of our courses have associated, co-requisite, laboratory components. Many of these lab courses provide training in modern molecular biology techniques, while others provide fundamental training via anatomical, taxonomic, and ecological investigations. We also support off-campus studies that generally include class field trips to venues such as the American Museum of Natural History, the New York Botanical Gardens, and to the nearby, thousand-plus acre Van Cortland Park, a city park that preserves upland forests and wetlands.  Our advanced research students present their findings at regional, national, and international meetings.  Pre-professional students with interests in clinical studies generally "shadow" medical professionals in clinical settings.

Students preparing for professional school admission should consult the School of Science section of the catalog for requirements. 

B.S. Degree

The B.S. degree is the preferred degree for students who wish to prepare for professional or graduate school.  Students plan an individual program of study of their Biology courses and free electives after consultation with their assigned advisor in the Biology Department.

Required Courses for the B.S. Degree

BIOL 111General Biology I4
Co-requisite BIOL 113
BIOL 112General Biology II4
Co-requisite BIOL 114
BIOL 217Genetics (Co-requisite BIOL 218)4
BIOL 218Genetics - Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 217)0
BIOL 223Ecology (Co-requisite BIOL 220)4
BIOL 231Evolution (Co-requisite BIOL 232)4
Biology Colloquium I
and Biology Colloquium II
Cell & Molecular Biology (choose any two 4-credit courses)8
Microbiology (Co-requisite BIOL 226)
Microbiology Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 225 )
Developmental Biology (Co-requisite BIOL 335)
Developmental Biology Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 302)
Cellular BioChemistry/Physiology (Co-requisite BIOL 323)
Cellular Biochemistry/Physiology Laboratory (Co-requisite BIOL 319)
Molecular Cell Biology (Co-requisite BIOL 322)
Molecular Cell Biology Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 321)
Neurobiology
Neurobiology - Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 405)
Immunology
Organismal Biology (choose any two 4-credit courses)8
Comparative Chordate Anatomy (Co-requisite BIOL 313)
Compar Chordate Anatomy-Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 301)
Invertebrate Zoology
Plant Biology (Co-requisite 303)
Plant Biology Laboratory (Co-requisite BIOL 305)
Animal Physiology (Co-requisite 324)
Animal Physiology Laboratory (Co-requisite 320)
Animal Behavior (Co-requisite 327)
Animal Behavior Lab (Co-requisite 326)
Marine Biology
Freshwater Ecology
Estuarine and Coastal Ecology
Biology Electives (choose a combination of courses to total at least 4 credits)4
Any 1 of Cell & Molecular or Organismal courses listed above
Anatomy and Physiology I (Co-requisite BIOL 209)
Anatomy And Physiology Lab I (Co-requisite BIOL 207)
Anatomy and Physiology II (Co-requisite BIOL 210)
Anatomy & Physiology II Lab (Co-requisite BIOL 208)
Advances in Nutrition
Research in Biology for Juniors
Research in Biology for Juniors
Research in Biology for Juniors
Independent Study in Biology for Juniors
Internship for Juniors
Research in Biology
Special Topics: in Biology
Research in Biology for Seniors
Research in Biology for Seniors
Research in Biology for Seniors
Independent Study in Biology
Internship for Seniors
Total Credits40

Cognate Requirements for the B.S. Degree

CHEM 101
CHEM 102
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
6
CHEM 103General Chemistry Laboratory I1
CHEM 104General Chemistry Laboratory II1
CHEM 319
CHEM 320
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
CHEM 323
CHEM 324
Organic Chemistry Laboratory I
and Organic Chemistry Laboratory II
4
Calculus I3
Calculus for the Life Sciences I
Calculus I
Calculus II3
Calculus for the Life Sciences II
Calculus II
Physics I4
Introduction to Physics I
or
Physics I
and Physics I Lab
Physics II4
Introduction to Physics II
or
Physics II
and Physics II Lab
Total Credits32

B.A. Degree

Recognizing that many students have a distinct interest in Biology, yet possess diverse career goals, the Department offers the B.A. degree with a relatively large number of electives. Students should use these electives to either minor or concentrate in any of the humanities, social science or business disciplines. This program is not recommended for students wishing to go on to medical/professional school, graduate studies in Biology, or physical therapy programs unless other prerequisites are met. The B.A. program is intended to help students obtain employment in medical and pharmaceutical sales, medical writing, careers in public health and safety and the insurance industry as it relates to health care.

Required Courses for the B.A. Degree 

BIOL 111General Biology I4
BIOL 113General Biology I Laboratory0
BIOL 112General Biology II4
BIOL 114General Biology II Laboratory0
BIOL 217Genetics4
BIOL 218Genetics - Lab0
BIOL 223Ecology4
BIOL 220Ecology Lab0
BIOL 231Evolution4
BIOL 232Evolution Laboratory0
BIOL 404Biology Colloquium I1
BIOL 414Biology Colloquium II1
Biology Electives (choose a combination of courses from the list below to total at least 14 credits.)14
Total Credits36

Biology Electives for the B.A. with Their Co-Requisite Labs1 (choose a combination to total at least 14 credits)

BIOL 207Anatomy and Physiology I4
BIOL 209Anatomy And Physiology Lab I0
BIOL 208Anatomy and Physiology II4
BIOL 210Anatomy & Physiology II Lab0
BIOL 225Microbiology4
BIOL 226Microbiology Lab0
BIOL 301Comparative Chordate Anatomy4
BIOL 313Compar Chordate Anatomy-Lab0
BIOL 302Developmental Biology4
BIOL 335Developmental Biology Lab0
BIOL 304Invertebrate Zoology4
BIOL 305Plant Biology4
BIOL 303Plant Biology Laboratory0
BIOL 318Advances in Nutrition2
BIOL 319Cellular BioChemistry/Physiology4
BIOL 323Cellular Biochemistry/Physiology Laboratory0
BIOL 320Animal Physiology4
BIOL 324Animal Physiology Laboratory0
BIOL 321Molecular Cell Biology4
BIOL 322Molecular Cell Biology Lab0
BIOL 326Animal Behavior4
BIOL 327Animal Behavior Lab0
BIOL 405Neurobiology4
BIOL 407Neurobiology - Lab0
BIOL 409Marine Biology4
BIOL 426Immunology4
BIOL 431Freshwater Ecology4
BIOL 432Estuarine and Coastal Ecology4
BIOL 441Cardiovascular Biology3
BIOL 310Research in Biology for Juniors2
BIOL 311Research in Biology for Juniors2
BIOL 317Research in Biology for Juniors3
BIOL 360Independent Study in Biology for Juniors2
BIOL 375Internship for Juniors2
BIOL 400Research in Biology1
BIOL 406Special Topics: in Biology4
BIOL 410Research in Biology for Seniors2
BIOL 411Research in Biology for Seniors2
BIOL 413Research in Biology for Seniors3
BIOL 460Independent Study in Biology1-3
BIOL 475Internship for Seniors3

Cognate Requirements for the B.A. Degree

CHEM 101
CHEM 102
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry II
6
CHEM 103General Chemistry Laboratory I1
CHEM 104General Chemistry Laboratory II1
CHEM 319
CHEM 320
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry II
6
MATH 100Pre-Calculus Mathematics3
MATH 230Elementary Statistics3
Physics I4
Introduction to Physics I
or
Physics I
and Physics I Lab
Physics II4
Introduction to Physics II
or
Physics II
and Physics II Lab
Total Credits28

Minors

A minor requires 15 credits in Biology courses planned in consultation with and approval of the Chair of the Biology Department.  Eight of these credits must be the General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-114).  The remaining credits must be chosen from courses that satisfy B.S. major requirements.

Grade Requirements

Majors and minors must attain a minimum grade of C in all biology courses. Prerequisites for upper level Biology courses: C or better in General Biology I (BIOL 111 and BIOL 113) and C or better in General Biology II (BIOL 112 and BIOL 114) or the equivalents are required.

Registration for Advanced Courses

Permission of the academic advisor of the Biology Department is required for registration in all courses at the 300 and 400 levels.

Courses for Non-Biology Majors

The following courses are offered for and are restricted to students majoring in departments other than Biology. 

BIOL 103Introduction to Biology3
BIOL 207
BIOL 208
Anatomy and Physiology I
and Anatomy and Physiology II
8
BIOL 131Principles of Biology I4
BIOL 132Principles of Biology II4
BIOL 133Principles of Biology Lab I0
BIOL 134Principles of Biology Lab II0
BIOL 221Introductory Nutrition3
BIOL 222Biology for Engineers3
BIOL 441Cardiovascular Biology3

PLANS OF STUDY

Bachelor of Science in Biology

First Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL 1114BIOL 1124
BIOL 1130BIOL 1140
MATH 1553CHEM 1023
CHEM 1013CHEM 1041
CHEM 1031MATH 1563
SCI 1001PHIL 2133
ENGL 1103RELS 1103
 SCI 1011
 15 18
Second Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
MLL3CMPT 1553
BIOL 2234CHEM 3203
BIOL 2200CHEM 3242
BIOL 2320BIOL 2174
BIOL 2314BIOL 2180
CHEM 3193MLL 3
CHEM 3232Elective3
 16 18
Third Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Cell Elective4BIOL Organismal Elective4
HIST 1503PHYS 1084
ENGL 1503PHIL 1503
RELS Catholic Studies3Social Sciences3
PHYS 1074 
 17 14
Fourth Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Organismal Elective4BIOL Cell Elective4
BIOL Elective2BIOL Elective2
RELS Global/Contemporary3BIOL 4141
Social Sciences3MUSC 150 or ART 1503
Elective3Electives 6
BIOL 4041 
 16 16
Total Credits: 130

Bachelor of Arts in Biology 

First Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL 1114RELS 1103
BIOL 1130MLL 3
MLL3BIOL 1124
CHEM 1013BIOL 1140
CHEM 1031CHEM 1023
SCI 1001CHEM 1041
ENGL 1103PHIL 2133
 SCI 1011
 15 18
Second Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
CHEM 3193CHEM 3203
MATH 1003Social Sciences3
CMPT 1553MATH 2303
BIOL 2234HIST 1503
BIOL 2314BIOL 2180
 BIOL 2174
 17 16
Third Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Elective4BIOL Elective4
PHYS 1074Free Elective3
Free Elective3ENGL 1503
Social Studies3PHYS 1084
MUSC 150 ( or ART 150)3PHIL 1503
 17 17
Fourth Year
FallCreditsSpringCredits
BIOL Elective4BIOL Elective2
RELS Catholic Studies3BIOL 4141
Free Electives8RELS Global/Contemporary3
BIOL 4041Free Electives8
 16 14
Total Credits: 130

Courses

BIOL 092. Biology Elective. 3 Credits.

BIOL 099. Biology Bridge Course. 0 Credits.

This is a Pre-Freshman Biology course designed to introduce students to the nature of modern biology as it is taught at Manhattan College and to prepare them to be successful in General Biology. Using a combination of classroom techniques, including interactive lectures, problem-solving and facilitated discussions, this course focuses on selected topics that are normally covered in the General Biology majors courses. In addition, this course seeks to develop transferable skills that incorporate successful strategies for the deep learning and application of modern Biology, such as critical thinking and reading, effective note-taking, and exam preparation.

BIOL 103. Introduction to Biology. 3 Credits.

A basic study of the principles and applications of biology in contemporary life. Two lectures and one two-hour laboratory period.

BIOL 104. Introduction to Biology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

A basic study of the principles and applications of biology in contemporary life. One two hour laboratory period.

BIOL 111. General Biology I. 4 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 113. Offered Fall/Spring.

BIOL 112. General Biology II. 4 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in BIOL 111. Pre-requisites: BIOL 111 and BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 114. Offered Fall/Spring.

BIOL 113. General Biology I Laboratory. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 111.

BIOL 114. General Biology II Laboratory. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organism anatomy and physiology, and ecology. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in BIOL 111. Co-requisite: BIOL 112. Offered Fall/Spring.

BIOL 119. General Biology II. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 112 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Prerequisite: Grade of C or better in BIOL 111 and BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 114. Offered: Fall/Spring.

BIOL 120. General Biology II Laboratory. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of evolution, biodiversity, organismal anatomy and physiology, and ecology. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 112 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Prerequisite: Grade C or better in BIOL 111 & BIOL 113. Co-requisite: BIOL 112. Offered: Fall/Spring.

BIOL 121. General Biology I Honors. 4 Credits.

General Biology I is a foundation-level course that is a prerequisite for a second-level course, General Biology II. Although the topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 111, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Fall. Co-requisite: BIOL 123.

BIOL 122. General Biology II Honors. 4 Credits.

General Biology II Honors is a second semester sequence of BIOL 121. It is a foundation-level course that examines the relationship between organisms. Although the topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 112, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Spring semester. Pre-requisite: Grade of B or better in BIOL 121. Co-requisite: BIOL 124.

BIOL 123. General Biology I Laboratory Honors. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 113, but in BIOL 123 students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Fall. Co-requisite: BIOL 121.

BIOL 124. General Biology II Lab Honors. 0 Credits.

An exploration of the relationship between organisms. One 3-hr laboratory. The topics covered in this course are similar to BIOL 114. In BIOL 124, students will examine them in greater depth. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 125. General Biology I. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Three 1-hr lectures. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 111 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog.Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 126.

BIOL 126. General Biology I Laboratory. 2 Credits.

An exploration of the central concepts of cell biology, cell physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. One 3-hr laboratory. The General Biology sequence (BIOL 111-BIOL 114) is required for those majoring in Biology or Pre-Med.This course is restricted only to students who wish to repeat BIOL 113 to fulfill the credit requirement under the previous course catalog. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite: BIOL 125.

BIOL 131. Principles of Biology I. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution with emphasis on human biology. Three one-hour lectures per week with a three-hour, co-requisite lab (BIOL 133). The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 131-134)* is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite lab: BIOL 133. *The BIOL 131-134 sequence replaces the closed BIOL 115-118 sequence.

BIOL 132. Principles of Biology II. 4 Credits.

This is part two of our introduction to the basic principles and concepts of cell biology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution with emphasis on human biology. Three one-hour lectures per week with a three-hour, co-requisite lab (BIOL 134). The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 131-134)* is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite lab: BIOL 134. *The BIOL 131-134 sequence replaces the closed BIOL 115-118 sequence.

BIOL 133. Principles of Biology Lab I. 0 Credits.

This is a laboratory course (three hours weekly) to provide practice with hands-on techniques in cell and molecular biology, as well as in genetics and evolution. It is also used to help students practice scientific methodologies via experimental exercises which also provides practice with critical thinking. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 131-134)* is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite lecture: BIOL 131. *The BIOL 131-134 sequence replaces the closed BIOL 115-118 sequence.

BIOL 134. Principles of Biology Lab II. 0 Credits.

This is a laboratory course (three hours weekly) to provide practice with hands-on techniques in cell and molecular biology, as well as in genetics and evolution. It is also used to help students practice scientific methodologies via experimental exercises; which also provides practice with critical thinking. The Principles of Biology sequence (BIOL 131-134)* is intended for those not majoring in Biology or Pre-Med. Offered alternating semesters. Co-requisite lecture BIOL 132. *The BIOL 131-134 sequence replaces the closed BIOL 115-118 sequence.

BIOL 207. Anatomy and Physiology I. 4 Credits.

Structure and functions of the organs and systems of the human body with expanded coverage of topics such as mechanisms of disease. Topics include: biology of the cell, histology, and skeletal, muscular & nervous systems. Two 1-hr lectures and one 3-hr laboratory. Offered alternating semesters. Biology majors in the Education studies and Pre-Physical Therapy studies may take this course for Biology credit.

BIOL 208. Anatomy and Physiology II. 4 Credits.

Structure and functions of the organs and systems of the human body with expanded coverage of topics such as mechanisms of disease. Topics include: digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive and endocrine systems. Three 1-hr lectures. Offered alternating semesters. Biology majors in the Education studies and Pre-Physical Therapy studies may take this course for Biology credit.

BIOL 209. Anatomy And Physiology Lab I. 0 Credits.

BIOL 210. Anatomy & Physiology II Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 217. Genetics. 4 Credits.

Genetics explores basic facts to major principles of chromosomal, molecular, quantitative, population, and evolutionary genetics. Pre-requisites are General Biology I (BIOL 111 or 121) and General Biology II (BIOL 112 or 122) with grades of C or better. Co-requisite: BIOL 218. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 218. Genetics - Lab. 0 Credits.

The three-hour, weekly genetics lab uses experimental methods, specialized software, and problem solving to explore aspects of chromosomal, molecular, quantitative, population, and evolutionary genetics. Pre-requisites are General Biology I (BIOL 111 or 121) and General Biology II (BIOL 112 or 122) with grades of C or better. Co-requisite: BIOL 217. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 220. Ecology Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 221. Introductory Nutrition. 3 Credits.

A survey of human nutritional needs throughout the life cycle. Recommended for Nursing, Physical Education, and Liberal Arts majors. Three lectures. Fall, Spring.

BIOL 222. Biology for Engineers. 3 Credits.

The general principles of modern science and biology, with focus on engineering solutions to biological problems, including pollution, bio-remediation, genetic engineering and risk assessment. Two one-hour lectures and one two-hour lab per week.

BIOL 223. Ecology. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. Survey of ecological principles at the level of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems with emphasis on quantitative analysis. Three 1-hr lectures and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 111 and BIOL 112 or BIOL 121 and BIOL 122 or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 220. Fall.

BIOL 224. BiologyForEngineers Laboratory. 0 Credits.

The general principles of modern science and biology, with focus on engineering solutions to biological problems, including pollution, bioremediation, genetic engineering and risk assessment. One 2 hour lab per week. Co-Requisite: BIOL 222.

BIOL 225. Microbiology. 4 Credits.

Introduction to microbial physiology, genetics, and ecology with an emphasis on the role of microbes in the environment and infectious disease. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period per week. Co-requisite: BIOL 226. Prerequisite: C or better in General Biology I (BIOL 111 or 121) and C or better in General Biology II (BIOL 113 or 122).

BIOL 226. Microbiology Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 231. Evolution. 4 Credits.

Evolution is an introduction to the central organizing theme in biology. The course examines the basic mechanisms for evolution at various scales, ranging from molecular to ecological levels. Major topics include evolutionary genetics, microevolution, speciation, macroevolution, and evolutionary medicine. It consists of weekly three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab, the co-requisite BIOL 232. Pre-requisites are General Biology I (BIOL 111 or 121) and General Biology II (BIOL 112 or 122) with grades of C or better. Fall Semester.

BIOL 232. Evolution Laboratory. 0 Credits.

The lab for Evolution is used for a variety of purposes. These include anatomical studies (especially in regard to discovering homologous structures in diverse species), quantitative studies (Hardy-Weinberg, heritability measures), literature searches and reviews, “journal club” style discussions, group projects and presentations, as well as some biodiversity studies that take us to off-campus venues, such as Van Cortlandt Park, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Bronx Zoo. Pre-requisites are General Biology I (BIOL 111 or 121) and General Biology II (BIOL 112 or 122) with grades of C or better. Co-requisite: BIOL 231. Fall.

BIOL 301. Comparative Chordate Anatomy. 4 Credits.

An anatomical survey of chordate evolution, with an emphasis on human anatomy, where homologous structures are examined in diverse chordate organisms. Form, function, and phylogeny are explored from worm-like chordates and sharks to dinosaurs, birds, as well as humans and other mammals. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, or BIOL 121 or BIOL 122 or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 313.

BIOL 302. Developmental Biology. 4 Credits.

A study of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the development of various organisms. Emphasis will be placed on fertilization events, spatial organization, pattern formation and gene action in development. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr hour laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 303. Plant Biology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Physiological, biochemical and anatomical aspects of plants will be studied in the context of their native environments. The molecular, hormonal and physiological basis for plant adaptations will be stressed. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 304. Invertebrate Zoology. 4 Credits.

Morphological and physiological characteristics of selected invertebrates and consideration of their ecological relationships. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 305. Plant Biology. 4 Credits.

Physiological, biochemical and anatomical aspects of plants will be studied in the context of their native environments. The molecular, hormonal and physiological basis for plant adaptations will be stressed. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 303.

BIOL 310. Research in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114.

BIOL 311. Research in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114.

BIOL 312. Advanced Biology for Biochemists. 3 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular function and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra- and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite BIOL 217 and CHEM 323.

BIOL 313. Compar Chordate Anatomy-Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 317. Research in Biology for Juniors. 3 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours per credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 318. Advances in Nutrition. 2 Credits.

Recent developments in human nutrition with emphasis on clinical conditions. Recommended for upper-class pre-health professional students. One lecture hour and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 319. Cellular BioChemistry/Physiology. 4 Credits.

Dynamic aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of the cell, including thermodynamics, oxidation/reduction, respiration, enzymes, membranes, cell signaling and metabolic pathways. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, or BIOL 121, BIOL 122 and BIOL 217 and CHEM 319, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 323.

BIOL 320. Animal Physiology. 4 Credits.

Discovery of the major principles of animal (especially humans) functions. Topics include (1) procurement and use of energy, (2) growth, (3) internal organ functions, reproduction, and adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on tissue, organ and organism functions. Various taxa will be examined in lab, especially humans. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 324.

BIOL 321. Molecular Cell Biology. 4 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular function and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra- and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 217 or CHEM 433, or consent of instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL 322.

BIOL 322. Molecular Cell Biology Lab. 0 Credits.

In-depth analysis of molecules directing cellular structure. Emphasis will be placed on the molecular mechanisms of cellular functions and interactions. Topics will include: organelle structure/function, intra-and intercellular signaling, and cell cycle control. One three hour laboratory per week. Spring.

BIOL 323. Cellular Biochemistry/Physiology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Dynamic aspects of the physiology and biochemistry of cells, including thermodynamics, oxidation/reduction, respiration, metabolic pathways, enzymes, membranes, cell signaling and cellular control mechanisms. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 324. Animal Physiology Laboratory. 0 Credits.

Discovery of the major principles of animal (especially humans) functions. Topics include (1) procurement and use of energy. (2) growth, (3) internal organ functions, reproduction, and adaptations to diverse environments. Emphasis is placed on tissue, organ and organism functions. Various taxa will be examined in lab, especially humans. One 3 hour lab per week.

BIOL 326. Animal Behavior. 4 Credits.

The biological basis of animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory or field work period.

BIOL 327. Animal Behavior Lab. 0 Credits.

One 3-hr laboratory or field work period companion to the BIOL 326 lecture. (The biological basis of animal behavior from an ecological and evolutionary perspective).

BIOL 335. Developmental Biology Lab. 0 Credits.

The laboratory will focus on the fundamental techniques used by developmental biologists. One three-hour laboratory per week. Corequisite BIOL 302.

BIOL 360. Independent Study in Biology for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Independent study of an area in biology. Up to ten hours per week, including a conference with sponsor, plus a final paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 375. Internship for Juniors. 2 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to one of the areas of biology. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Pre-requisite: Junior Status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor and the chair.

BIOL 400. Research in Biology. 1 Credit.

I Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results may lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 404. Biology Colloquium I. 1 Credit.

This course is the first half of the Biology majors capstone in which students will eventually present a full-length document on a biological subject, that will either be a review paper or a research paper. Training in reading and comprehension of scientific papers, understanding statistical analysis issues, constructing a reference section, writing for science and power-point construction issues. Four weeks of journal club sessions. Proposal preparation for a monograph. One discussion period. Offered: Fall.

BIOL 405. Neurobiology. 4 Credits.

An examination of the basic principles of the nervous system including the cellular and molecular biology of the neuron, synaptic transmission, sensory and motor systems and their integration. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 217 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 406. Special Topics: in Biology. 4 Credits.

Current problems and studies in biology. Consult department chair for topic. Four lecture hours OR three lecture hours and one 3-hr laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 407. Neurobiology - Lab. 0 Credits.

BIOL 408. Sustainable Agriculture. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on crop management, conservation agriculture, depletion of resources, and global challenges caused by climate change. Prerequisites are CHEM 101, BIOL 111,112,113,114. Offered in Fall semester.

BIOL 409. Marine Biology. 4 Credits.

Principles of marine ecology in an oceanic environment with emphasis on tropical communities. Three lecture hours per week are held on campus, but the field portion of the course is taught during the mid-semester recess in the Caribbean. Students in this course will be charged an additional lab fee to cover the transportation, room & board, and activities costs associated with the field trip. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 410. Research in Biology for Seniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall.

BIOL 411. Research in Biology for Seniors. 2 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Four hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 413. Research in Biology for Seniors. 3 Credits.

Investigation of challenging problems. Five hours/credit per week including a conference with sponsor. Results should ordinarily lead to an off-campus presentation. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Offered: Fall and Spring.

BIOL 414. Biology Colloquium II. 1 Credit.

This course is the second part of the Biology majors capstone course. Study and discussion of biological topics, exposure to various presentation styles by external speakers, sitting in for the Biology major field test, completion and presentation of a monograph. One discussion period. Offered: Spring.

BIOL 426. Immunology. 4 Credits.

Study of fundamental properties of antigens and antibodies. Theories of antibody production, tolerance, transplantation immunity, autoimmunity, tumor immunology, and immunochemistry. Introduction to antibody-mediated and cell-mediated reactions. Four lecture hours. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, BIOL 217, BIOL 321, and BIOL 322.

BIOL 431. Freshwater Ecology. 4 Credits.

Study of the ecology of freshwater communities, including physical, chemical, and biotic components with emphasis on a comparison of major freshwater systems. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr field or laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 432. Estuarine and Coastal Ecology. 4 Credits.

Studies of estuarine and near-shore marine ecosystems with emphasis on local temperate habitats. Three lecture hours and one 3-hr field or laboratory period. Pre-requisite: BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, and BIOL 223 or consent of the instructor.

BIOL 441. Cardiovascular Biology. 3 Credits.

Anatomical, physiological, pathological and nutritional aspects of the human cardiovascular system. Three lectures and a monograph based on library research or supervised laboratory experience at a hospital cardiac stress testing laboratory.

BIOL 460. Independent Study in Biology. 1-3 Credit.

Independent Study in Biology. Independent study of an area in biology. Ten hours per week including a conference with sponsor. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Fall, Spring.

BIOL 475. Internship for Seniors. 3 Credits.

Students participate in an off-campus training experience closely related to their area of biology. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Sponsorship by a faculty member of the Biology Department must be obtained in advance. Prerequisites: Senior status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor or the Chair.