Mathematics & Physics
Dr. Helene R. Tyler, Mathematics
Chair of the Department
Dr. Bart Horn, Physics
Assistant Chair of the Department
The Department of Mathematics and Physics plays a vital role in the education of all students at Manhattan College through its offerings of programs for our majors as well as through the many support courses it offers for other departments across the college. We provide each student the analytical skills necessary to be successful in their field of study, whether it is Mathematics or Physics, another STEM field, Business, Education or the Liberal Arts.
MATHEMATICS
Mathematics is the science of structure and the art of problem solving. The discipline is at the core of every STEM field, is a the heart of decision making in business, and has applications in all of the liberal arts. Studying mathematics will give you the criticalthinking and analytical skills needed for a career in data science, STEM education , law, finance, and more.
Majors receive rigorous training in the areas of analysis, linear and abstract algebra, statistics, and mathematical proofwriting. Students have the opportunity to gain experience in applied subjects such as data science, operations research, and mathematical modeling. Our faculty are distinguished scientists and awardwinning educators. Students will be encouraged to participate in mentored research projects, many of which are funded experiences, that provide preparation for graduate school as well as successful careers in industry. Mathematics students have presented their work at national and international conferences, and several have coauthored peerreviewed publications with their faculty mentors.
The Department supports a chapter of Pi Mu Epsilon, the national mathematics honor society, and Sigma Xi, an international honor society for science and engineering.
Degree Plans
The Department offers the following degree programs:

Major in Mathematics

Bachelor of Science Degree

Bachelor of Arts Degree


Second Major in Mathematics

Concentration in Applied Mathematics

Minor in Mathematics
General Requirements
Courses should be taken in accordance with the Plans of Study listed below. These plans incorporate the Kakos School of Arts and Science Core Curriculum. Care should be taken in planning your program since some courses are not offered every semester. A minimum grade of C is required in each of the courses used for any of the listed programs (major, second major, concentration, or minor).
With the approval of the Department Chair, wellprepared undergraduate students can take graduate mathematics courses to count toward their mathematics electives.
Major in Mathematics
B.S. in Mathematics
MATH 157  Foundations of Data Science  3 
or CMPT 102  Computer Science II  
MATH 185  Calculus I ^{1}  4 
MATH 186  Calculus II ^{1}  4 
MATH 243  Foundations for Higher Mathematics  3 
MATH 285  Calculus III ^{1}  4 
MATH 331  Probability  3 
MATH 336  Applied Statistics  3 
MATH 372  Linear Algebra I  3 
MATH 377  Algebra I  3 
MATH 387  Analysis I  3 
MATH 489  Problem Seminar  3 
MATH Electives ^{2}  6  
CMPT 101  Computer Science I  3 
PHYS 101 & PHYS 191  Physics I and Physics I Lab  4 
PHYS 102 & PHYS 192  Physics II and Physics II Lab  4 
Natural Sciences  8  
Total Credits  61 
 ^{ 1 }
Students who major in Mathematics and are selected for the honors sequence will be enrolled in the honors sections of Calculus I, II, and III (MATH 187, 188, and 287).
 ^{ 2 }
MATH Electives can be taken from the following list of Mathematics courses: 286, 361, 386, 432, 433, 448, 455, 456, 457, 464, 471, 478, 488, 490, and select topics courses by permission of the Chair. Graduate mathematics courses can also be used as electives with approval of the Chair.
B.A. in Mathematics
MATH 157  Foundations of Data Science  3 
or CMPT 102  Computer Science II  
MATH 185  Calculus I ^{1}  4 
MATH 186  Calculus II ^{1}  4 
MATH 243  Foundations for Higher Mathematics  3 
MATH 285  Calculus III ^{1}  4 
MATH 331  Probability  3 
MATH 336  Applied Statistics  3 
MATH 372  Linear Algebra I  3 
MATH 377  Algebra I  3 
MATH 387  Analysis I  3 
MATH 489  Problem Seminar  3 
MATH Electives ^{2}  6  
CMPT 101  Computer Science I  3 
3 SCI Courses ^{3}  9  
Total Credits  54 
 ^{ 1 }
Students who major in Mathematics and are selected for the honors sequence will be enrolled in the honors sections of Calculus I, II, and III (MATH 187, 188, and 287).
 ^{ 2 }
MATH Electives can be taken from the following list of Mathematics courses: 286, 361, 386, 432, 433, 448, 455, 456, 457, 464, 471, 478, 488, 490, and select topics courses by permission of the Chair. Graduate mathematics courses can also be used as electives with approval of the Chair.
 ^{ 3 }
Students may opt for one full year of a lab science (8 credits). Students may also opt to replace the 3 SCI XXX courses with 9 credits of courses within a single discipline in the School of Science.
Second Major in Mathematics
Students with a primary major in Liberal Arts, Business, Engineering, or Science
To complete a second major in Mathematics, students with a primary major in one of the above areas must take a total of 39 credits of mathematics courses from the Mathematics major courses listed above. These credits must include MATH 157 (or CMPT 102), MATH 185 (or 187), 186 (or 188), 243, 285 (or 287), 336, 372, 377, 387, MATH 489, and two (2) MATH electives. Graduate Mathematics courses also may be used as electives with approval of the Department Chair.
Students majoring in Adolescence Education
Students pursuing a degree in Adolescence Education Mathematics earn a Second Major in Mathematics by completing the following sequence as required by their degree program.
B.S. in Adolescence Education Mathematics
MATH 157  Foundations of Data Science  3 
or CMPT 102  Computer Science II  
MATH 185  Calculus I  4 
MATH 186  Calculus II  4 
MATH 243  Foundations for Higher Mathematics  3 
MATH 285  Calculus III  4 
MATH 328  Fundamental Concepts of Secondary Mathematics  3 
MATH 331  Probability  3 
MATH 336  Applied Statistics  3 
MATH 361  Introduction to Higher Geometry  3 
MATH 372  Linear Algebra I  3 
MATH 377  Algebra I  3 
MATH 387  Analysis I  3 
MATH 489  Problem Seminar  3 
CMPT 101  Computer Science I  3 
Total Credits  45 
 *
Sequencing of courses is very important in order to accommodate the requirements of student teaching.
Application: A student who wishes to declare a Second Major in Mathematics should consult with the Chair of Mathematics and Physics, who will advise them on curricular matters. Advice on administrative procedures is offered through the Office of Centralized Advising.
A grade of at least C is required for all courses meeting the requirements for a Second Major in Mathematics.
Concentration in Applied Mathematics
The Concentration in Applied Mathematics is designed to complement major study in a different discipline and prepare students to use mathematics in the workplace. The concentration requires 7 courses (24 credits), providing more depth than the minor in Mathematics. A grade of at least C is required for all courses meeting the requirements for a Concentration in Applied Mathematics.
The required core of 15 credits, comprised of Calculus IIIIII (MATH 185/187, 186/188, 285/287) and Linear Algebra I (MATH 372)/Computational Linear Algebra & Statistics for Computer Science (MATH 351). Students choose the remaining 9 credits from a list of approved courses, including Foundations of Data Science (MATH 157), Differential Equations (MATH 286), Probability (MATH 331), Applied Statistics (MATH 336), Partial Differential Equations (MATH 386), Machine Learning (MATH 457/MATG 557), Operations Research (MATH 455/MATG 555), Mathematical Modeling (MATH 456), Linear Algebra II (MATH 471)/Advanced Linear Algebra with Applications (MATG 571), and Complex Analysis (MATH 490). Special topics courses in Mathematics or Graduate Mathematics courses may be used with approval of the Department Chair.
Minor in Mathematics
The minor in Mathematics consists of 5 courses in Mathematics and must include Calculus I (MATH 155/185/187) and Calculus II (MATH 156/186/188). The remaining courses may be chosen from among those that count toward a major in Mathematics. A grade of at least C is required for all courses meeting the requirements for a minor in Mathematics. At least three courses must be taken at Manhattan College, with AP and/or transfer credit subject to approval by the Chair of the Department of Mathematics and Physics.
Note: The following courses may not be used toward the Mathematics minor: MATH 100, 111, 151, 153, 154, 157, 158, 221, 222, 230, 320, 321, 322, 326, 327, 328, and 422.
Application: A student who wishes to declare a Minor in Mathematics should seek advice on administrative procedures through the Office of Centralized Advising. The Chair and Assistant Chair of Mathematics and Physics are available for consultation on curricular matters.
B.S. in Childhood Education  Mathematics Concentration
All students majoring in Childhood Education take the following 6 credit core sequence.
MATH 221  Mathematics for the Elementary School Teachers I  3 
MATH 222  Mathematics for the Elementary School Teachers II  3 
Childhood Education majors who pursue a Concentration in Mathematics take an additional 30 credits in Mathematics, including Precalculus (MATH 100), Calculus I (MATH 155/185/187), Calculus II (MATH 156/186/188), Foundations of Higher Mathematics (MATH 243), Foundations of Childhood Mathematics (MATH 327), a course in Statistics (MATH 230 or MATH 336), and three from the following: MATH 157, MATH 285, MATH 328, MATH 361, MATH 372. Please see the Plan of Study below for the appropriate sequencing of these courses.
PLANS OF STUDY
Bachelor of Science in Mathematics
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 185  4  MATH 157^{2}  3 
CMPT 101  3  MATH 186  4 
Modern Language^{1}  3  Modern Language^{1}  3 
ENGL 110  3  RELS 110  3 
SCI 100  1  LLRN 105  3 
Social Science  3  
17  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 243  3  MATH 336  3 
MATH 285  4  MATH 372  3 
PHYS 101 & PHYS 191  4  PHYS 102 & PHYS 192  4 
PHIL 150  3  ENGL 150  3 
Free Elective  3  Free Elective  3 
17  16  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 331  3  MATH 387  3 
MATH 377  3  RELS 2XX Catholic Studies  3 
Natural Science^{3}  4  Natural Science^{3}  4 
HIST 150  3  MATH Elective  3 
Free Elective  3  Free Elective  3 
16  16  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH Elective  3  MATH 489  3 
Free Electives  6  Free Electives  9 
MUSC 150 or ART 150  3  RELS 3XX Global/Contemporary  3 
12  15  
Total Credits: 125 
 ^{ 1 }
One year sequence of a Modern Foreign Language.
 ^{ 2 }
Students wishing to minor in Computer Science should take CMPT 102 Computer Science II instead of MATH 157 Foundations of Data Science.
 ^{ 3 }
One year (8 credits with lab) of the same natural science is required.
Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 185  4  MATH 157^{2}  3 
CMPT 101  3  MATH 186  4 
Modern Language^{1}  3  Modern Language^{1}  3 
ENGL 110  3  RELS 110  3 
SCI 100  1  LLRN 105  3 
Social Science  3  
17  16  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 243  3  MATH 336  3 
MATH 285  4  MATH 372  3 
SCI XXX^{3}  3  SCI XXX^{3}  3 
PHIL 150  3  SCI XXX^{3}  3 
Free Elective  3  ENGL 150  3 
16  15  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 331  3  MATH 387  3 
MATH 377  3  RELS 2XX Catholic Studies  3 
HIST 150  3  MATH Elective  3 
Free Elective  6  Free Elective  6 
15  15  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH Elective  3  MATH 489  3 
MUSC 150 or ART 150  3  RELS 3XX Global/Contemporary  3 
Social Science  3  Free Electives  9 
Free Electives  6  
15  15  
Total Credits: 124 
 ^{ 1 }
One year sequence of a Modern Foreign Language.
 ^{ 2 }
Students wishing to minor in Computer Science should take CMPT 102 Computer Science II instead of MATH 157 Foundations of Data Science.
 ^{ 3 }
Students may opt for one full year of a lab science (8 credits). In this case, the student will graduate with 120 credits. Students may also opt to replace SCI XXX with 9 credits of courses from within a single discipline in the School of Science.
Bachelor of Science Adolescence Education Mathematics
Sequencing of Mathematics Courses
See Education for sequencing of Education Courses.
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 185  4  MATH 157^{1}  3 
CMPT 101  3  MATH 186  4 
7  7  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 243  3  MATH 328^{2}  3 
MATH 285  4  MATH 372  3 
7  6  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 331  3  MATH 387  3 
MATH 377  3  MATH 361^{2}  3 
6  6  
Fourth Year  
Spring  Credits  
MATH 336  3  
MATH 489  3  
6  
Total Credits: 45 
 ^{ 1 }
Students wishing to minor in Computer Science should take CMPT 102 Computer Science II instead of MATH 157 Foundations of Data Science.
 ^{ 2 }
This plan of study applies to students who enter the program as firstyear students in the fall of an even year. Students who enter the program as firstyear students in the fall of an odd year will take MATH 361 in Year 2 and MATH 328 in Year 3.
Bachelor of Science Childhood Education Mathematics
Sequencing of Mathematics Courses
See Education for sequencing of Education Courses.
First Year  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 221^{1}  3  MATH 100  4 
MATH 222^{1}  3  
3  7  
Second Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 185  4  MATH 186  4 
MATH 327  3  
7  4  
Third Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
MATH 243  3  MATH 230 or 336  3 
MATH Elective  3  
3  6  
Fourth Year  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
Student Teaching  MATH Elective  3  
MATH Elective  3  
0  6  
Total Credits: 36 
 ^{ 1 }
MATH 221 and MATH 222 are required for all Childhood Education majors. These courses are not included in the 30Hour Concentration in Mathematics. Rather, they are shown here to add context for the sequencing of the Concentration courses.
PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
Physics is the study of natural phenomena, from subatomic scales to the scale of the entire universe. Physics is the most basic and fundamental science, and provides the basis for deep understanding in many fields of study and all of technology.
The Department offers B.S. and B.A. degrees in Physics, a Minor in Physics, a Minor in Astronomy and a Concentration in Theoretical Physics. Small class sizes and close collaboration between students and faculty create comfortable learning and research environments. Students in the Department collaborate with faculty on a variety of topics from early universe cosmology and neutron star astrophysics to particle physics, optics and condensed matter. Our students publish articles in leading research journals and make presentations at national and international conferences. With support from the Department and Manhattan College they participate in research and internships during the academic year and over the summer, both on campus and at locations such as Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA) and CERN (Switzerland). Our alumni have successful careers in science, data science, teaching, engineering, medicine, finance and other fields.
Lower Division Requirements
All physics majors must take the following courses in their freshman and sophomore years:
PHYS 101 & PHYS 191  Physics I and Physics I Lab  4 
PHYS 102 & PHYS 192  Physics II and Physics II Lab  4 
PHYS 209  Mathematical Methods in Physics  3 
PHYS 233  Physics III  3 
PHYS 234  Physics IV  3 
PHYS 262  Intermediate Laboratory II  1 
PHYS 301  Computational Physics ^{BS program}  3 
SCI 100  Science Orientation Seminar I  1 
CMPT 101  Computer Science I  3 
MATH 185  Calculus I  4 
or MATH 187  Honors Calculus I  
or MATH 155  Calculus for the Life Sciences I  
MATH 186  Calculus II  4 
or MATH 188  Honors Calculus II  
or MATH 156  Calculus for the Life Sciences II  
MATH 285  Calculus III  4 
or MATH 287  Honors Calculus III  
MATH 286  Differential Equations  3 
CHEM 101 & CHEM 103  General Chemistry I and General Chemistry Laboratory I  4 
CHEM 102 & CHEM 104  General Chemistry II and General Chemistry Laboratory II  4 
Upper Division Requirements for the B.S. Major in Physics
The B.S. Physics major program is standard preparation for those students interested in graduate studies in physics.
PHYS 312  Quantum Mechanics I  3 
PHYS 314  Electromagnetic Waves  3 
PHYS 341  Topics in Astrophysics  3 
PHYS 350  Optics  3 
PHYS 352  Modern Physics Lab II  3 
PHYS 410  Advanced Theoretical Physics  3 
PHYS 415  Statistical Mechanics  3 
PHYS 440  Research Project in Physics  3 
PHYS 443  Quantum Mechanics II: Quantum Computing & Information  3 
PHYS 445  Research Project in Physics  2 
PHYS 450  Seminar  1 
PHYS 446  Topics in Cosmology  3 
Upper Division Requirements for the B.A. Major in Physics
The B.A. Physics major program is useful to those interested in careers in fields such as education, technical writing, and patent law. It also provides a full foundation for graduate studies in physics.
PHYS 301  Computational Physics  3 
PHYS 312  Quantum Mechanics I  3 
PHYS 314  Electromagnetic Waves  3 
PHYS 350  Optics  3 
PHYS 352  Modern Physics Lab II  3 
PHYS 415  Statistical Mechanics  3 
PHYS 441  Senior Thesis  3 
PHYS 446  Topics in Cosmology  3 
Grade Requirements
For graduation, a physics major must have a 2.00 cumulative index in all required physics courses and elective science and engineering courses. A minimum grade of C is required in all major courses.
Minor in Physics
The minor in Physics consists of a minimum of 15 credits. Specific requirements are listed below. A grade of at least C is required for all courses meeting the requirements for a minor in Physics.
Application: To pursue the minor in Physics, a student must get a Minor Form from the department secretary, fill it out, and have it approved by the Chair of the Department. An approved form will be forwarded to the appropriate Dean.
Minor Requirements
The minor in Physics consists of a minimum of 15 credits including PHYS 101+191 and PHYS 102+192. The remaining courses should be chosen from the list below, with the approval of the Chair of the Department.
The following upperlevel courses may be used toward the Physics minor: PHYS 209, 221, 233, 234, 262, 301, 312, 314, 341, 350, 352, 410, 415, 440, 443, 445, 446 and 450.
Minor in Astronomy
The minor in Astronomy consists of a minimum of 15 credits. Specific requirements are listed below. A grade of at least C is required for all courses meeting the requirements for a minor in Astronomy.
Application: To pursue the minor in Astronomy, a student must get a Minor Form from the department secretary, fill it out, and have it approved by the Chair of the Department. An approved form will be forwarded to the appropriate Dean.
Minor Requirements
Required 3 credits courses: PHYS 101, 102, 222, 341.
At least one of the following 3 credits upperlevel courses offered by the Department is required: PHYS 301, 312, 314, 350, 440, and 446.
The Concentration in Theoretical Physics
The concentration in Theoretical Physics offers students the opportunity to acquire a deep conceptual understanding of fundamental physics and provides a foundation for professional work not only in physics and related fields but also in such fields as astrophysics, biophysics, engineering and applied physics, geophysics, mathematical physics, computer science, finance, and medicine. This concentration includes the following courses: Quantum Mechanics I (PHYS 312), Quantum Mechanics II (PHYS 443) and Advanced Theoretical Physics (PHYS 410).
PLANS OF STUDY
Bachelor of Science in Physics
Freshman  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 101 & PHYS 191  4  PHYS 102 & PHYS 192  4 
MATH 185 (Or MATH 187 or MATH 155)  4  MATH 186 (Or MATH 188 or MATH 156)  4 
RELS 110  3  CMPT 101  3 
SCI 100  1  ENGL 150  3 
ENGL 110  3  
15  14  
Sophomore  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 233  3  PHYS 234  3 
PHYS 209  3  PHYS 262  1 
MATH 285 or 287  4  PHYS 301  3 
CHEM 101 & CHEM 103  4  MATH 286  3 
Modern Language  3  CHEM 102 & CHEM 104  4 
Modern Language  3  
17  17  
Junior  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 350 or 446  3  PHYS 312  3 
PHYS 352^{ odd years}  3  PHYS 314 or 415  3 
MUSC 150 or ART 150  3  PHYS 341 or 410  3 
LLRN 105  3  PHIL 150  3 
RELS Catholic Studies  3  RELS Global/Contemporary  3 
15  15  
Senior  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 446 or 350  3  PHYS 410 or 341  3 
PHYS 440  3  PHYS 415 or 314  3 
PHYS 443  3  PHYS 445  2 
Social Sciences  3  PHYS 450  1 
Electives  3  HIST 150  3 
Social Sciences  3  
15  15  
Total Credits: 123 
Bachelor of Arts in Physics
Freshman  

Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 101 & PHYS 191  4  PHYS 102 & PHYS 192  4 
MATH 185, 187, or 155  4  MATH 185, 188, or 156  4 
RELS 110  3  CMPT 101  3 
SCI 100  1  ENGL 150  3 
ENGL 110  3  
15  14  
Sophomore  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 233  3  PHYS 234  3 
PHYS 209  3  PHYS 262  1 
MATH 285 or 287  4  MATH 286  3 
CHEM 101 & CHEM 103  4  CHEM 102 & CHEM 104  4 
Modern Language  3  Modern Language  3 
17  14  
Junior  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 350 or 446  3  PHYS 301  3 
PHYS 352^{ odd years}  3  PHYS 314 or 415  3 
HIST 150  3  PHIL 150  3 
Electives  6  RELS Catholic Studies  3 
Electives  3  
15  15  
Senior  
Fall  Credits  Spring  Credits 
PHYS 446 or 350  3  PHYS 312  3 
RELS Global/Contemporary  3  PHYS 441  3 
Social Sciences  3  Social Sciences  3 
Electives  6  Electives  6 
15  15  
Total Credits: 120 
Mathematics Courses
MATH 096. Bridge Course for Business. 0 Credits.
A review of the fundamentals of algebra, functions and their graphs, logarithmic and exponential functions, Excel spreadsheets. Intended for incoming business students with marginal nonpassing TRAM scores. The student must obtain a passing grade to be placed into MATH 153.
MATH 099. Bridge Course For Science/Engi. 0 Credits.
Algebra basics, lines and distance, functions and their graphs, polynomial and rational functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometry. Intended for incoming students in science and engineering with marginal nonpassing TRAM scores. The student must obtain a passing grade to be placed into MATH 185 Calculus I.
MATH 100. PreCalculus Mathematics. 4 Credits.
Basic set theory, functions, and their graphs. Topics from algebra, theory of equations, trigonometry and analytic geometry. Intended to prepare students for a course in calculus. Meets four hours per week.
MATH 111. PreCalculus for Business Students. 4 Credits.
Review of elementary algebra, introduction to analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, logarithmic and exponential functions, polynomial functions. Meets four hours per week.
MATH 151. Topics in Modern Mathematics. 3 Credits.
An introduction to practical mathematical topics of particular interest to students in the humanities or social sciences. Possibilities include but are not limited to the mathematics of social choice, consumer mathematics, mathematical modeling and statistics. Additional topics may be introduced as time permits.
MATH 153. Finite Mathematics for Business Decisions. 3 Credits.
Survey of business applications. Topics include financial mathematics: simple and compound interest, annuities and amortization of loans; linear optimization: solving systems of linear equations and matrix algebra; probability: elementary counting techniques, odds, and expected value. Prerequisite: A satisfactory score on the mathematics placement exam or a grade of C or better in MATH 111.
MATH 154. Calculus for Business Decisions. 3 Credits.
A onesemester course in the calculus of functions of one variable, intended for students in Business. Polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions. Limits, derivatives, techniques and applications of differentiation. Indefinite and definite integrals, applications of the integral. Prerequisite: A passing grade in MATH 153.
MATH 155. Calculus for the Life Sciences I. 4 Credits.
Limits, continuity, exponential/logarithmic functions differentiation/antidifferentiation. An introduction to the definite integral. Meets four hours per week. Prerequisite: A satisfactory score on the mathematics placement exam or a grade of C or better in MATH 100.
MATH 156. Calculus for the Life Sciences II. 4 Credits.
Applications chosen from the life sciences, including population, decay, growth models, stability, and matrix methods. Volumes of solids, integration techniques, difference/differential equations. Meets four hours per week. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 155.
MATH 157. Foundations of Data Science. 3 Credits.
Foundations of data science based on computation, statistical inference, and interpretation for realworld problems. This course introduces students to techniques in data science with real data. Starting from the basics of programming for data applications, followed by statistical inference and concluding with interpretation of the insights, communication, and limitations of the results, this course provides a handson introduction to the foundations of data science using realworld economic, medical, geographical, and social network data.
MATH 158. Introduction to Mathematical Computation. 3 Credits.
Introduction to mathematical problemsolving employing modern software used for mathematical modeling in industry and research. Numerical and symbolic computation including problems from calculus. A variety of problems arising in mathematics, science, and engineering. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in CMPT 101 and Calculus I (MATH 155 or MATH 185 or MATH 187).
MATH 185. Calculus I. 4 Credits.
Limits, transcendental functions, continuity, derivatives and their applications, an introduction to the definite integral, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Meets four hours per week. Prerequisite: A satisfactory score on the mathematics placement exam or a grade of C or better in MATH 100.
MATH 186. Calculus II. 4 Credits.
Applications of the definite integral, integration techniques, improper integrals, and infinite sequences and series. Meets four hours per week. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in Calculus I (MATH 155 or MATH 185 or MATH 187).
MATH 187. Honors Calculus I. 4 Credits.
Honors equivalent to Calculus I. Rigorous development of limits, transcendental functions, continuity, derivatives and their applications, an introduction to the definite integral, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Meets four hours per week. Fall. Prerequisite: Students will be selected by the instructor.
MATH 188. Honors Calculus II. 4 Credits.
Honors equivalent to Calculus II. Rigorous development of applications of the definite integral, integration techniques, improper integrals, and infinite sequences and series. Meets four hours per week. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 187 or permission of the instructor.
MATH 221. Mathematics for the Elementary School Teachers I. 3 Credits.
This is a course for prospective teachers in elementary school. The content and method will follow the current standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for the elementary level. Topics include tools for problem solving, numeration systems, number theory, and algebra. Fall.
MATH 222. Mathematics for the Elementary School Teachers II. 3 Credits.
This is a course for prospective teachers in elementary school. The content and method will follow the current standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for the elementary level. Topics include tools for problem solving, geometry, measurement, and statistics. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 221.
MATH 230. Elementary Statistics. 3 Credits.
An introduction to statistical methods: descriptive statistics, association between two variables, basic probability, discrete random variables, binomial and normal random variables, sampling distribution, confidence intervals, tests of significance.
MATH 243. Foundations for Higher Mathematics. 3 Credits.
A bridge between introductory and advanced mathematics. The context of set theory and logic will be used to develop the skills of constructing and interpreting mathematical proofs. Topics include principles of logical argument, modular arithmetic, induction, sets, relations, functions, equivalence relations. Fall. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in Calculus II (MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188) or current enrollment in Calculus II (MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188).
MATH 285. Calculus III. 4 Credits.
Algebraic and geometric aspects of vectors, functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vector calculus, line integrals, Green’s Theorem. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in Calculus II (MATH 156, MATH 186, or MATH 188).
MATH 286. Differential Equations. 3 Credits.
This course focuses on techniques of solving firstorder, secondorder, and systems of firstorder linear differential equations. Methods include separation of variables, variation of parameters, and the Laplace transform. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in Calculus III (MATH 285 or MATH 287).
MATH 287. Honors Calculus III. 4 Credits.
Honors equivalent to Calculus III. Algebraic and geometric aspects of vectors, functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vector calculus, line integrals, Green’s Theorem. Intended for students who have completed the honors section of Calculus II (MATH 188). Fall. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 188 or permission of instructor.
MATH 320. Fundamental Concepts: Probability & Data Analysis. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of K8 mathematics. The course will explore data analysis as a fourstep investigative process involving question development, data production, data analysis and contextual conclusions. Topics may include describing and comparing data distributions for both categorical and numerical data, exploring bivariate relationships, exploring elementary probability, and using random sampling as a basis for informal inference. Course includes use of appropriate software. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 222. Offered irregularly.
MATH 321. Fundamental Concepts: Algebra & Number Theory. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of K8 mathematics. Topics chosen from expressions and equations, ratio, proportional relationships and inversely proportional relationships, arithmetic and geometric sequences, factors and multiples (including greatest common factor and least common multiple), prime numbers and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, divisibility tests, rational versus irrational numbers, the division algorithm, modular arithmetic, functions (linear, quadratic, and exponential). Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 222. Offered every third semester. See department for rotation schedule.
MATH 322. Fundamental Concepts: Geometry & Measurement. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of K8 mathematics. Perimeter, area, surface area, volume, and angle; geometric shapes, geometric solids, transformations, dilations, symmetry, congruence, similarity; modeling with similar triangles, and the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. The use of appropriate software is an important component of the course. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 222.
Offered every third semester. See department for rotation schedule.
MATH 326. Fundamental Concepts: Discrete Math. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of K8 mathematics. Topics chosen from logic, Boolean algebra, introductory graph theory, counting techniques and mathematical induction. Coding will be introduced as a way of including technology as well as algorithmic, iterative and recursive thinking into the course. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 222. Offered every third semester. See department for rotation schedule.
MATH 327. Fundamental Concepts of Childhood Mathematics. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of K8 mathematics. Topics are chosen from: prime numbers and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, divisibility tests, rational versus irrational numbers, the division algorithm, modular arithmetic, geometric transformations, symmetry, congruence, similarity, the Pythagorean Theorem, logic, and boolean algebra. Coding will be introduced as a way of including algorithmic, iterative, and recursive thinking into the course. Appropriate educational technology (e.g. GeoGebra) will be utilized.
Restricted to students in Education majors.
MATH 328. Fundamental Concepts of Secondary Mathematics. 3 Credits.
A course for prospective teachers of secondary school mathematics. There will be a strong emphasis on the high school New York State Next Generation Mathematics Leaming Standards and Standards for Mathematical Practice. Central ideas from the following topics will be explored and connected from both intuitive and rigorous points of view. Topics include the real and complex numbers, transcendental functions, exponentiation, hyperbolas, ellipses, logarithmic functions, polynomials, statistics, probability, and trigonometry. Appropriate technological tools will be used. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 Spring of even years.
MATH 331. Probability. 3 Credits.
Basic theorems in probability, random variables, distribution functions, expected values; binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Fall. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in Calculus II (MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188).
MATH 336. Applied Statistics. 3 Credits.
A calculus based survey of probability and statistics with applications in social and natural sciences and engineering. Topics include probability, discrete and continuous random variables, point and interval estimation, hypothesis testing, linear models (encompassing regression and ANOVA). Not open to students with credit for MATH 351. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in Calculus II (MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188).
MATH 351. Computational Linear Algebra & Statistics for Computer Science. 3 Credits.
This course consists of three components: linear algebra including linear equations and matrices, vector spaces, subspaces, linear independence, bases, dimension, linear transformations, eigenvalues/eigenvectors, and diagonalization; Operations research including linear programming and the simplex method; Statistical inference including point and interval estimation, bias, hypothesis testing, linear models (encompassing regression and ANOVA). Enrollment restricted to Computer Science students or by approval of Department Chair. Not open to students with credit in (MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 336).A grade of C or better in Calculus II (MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188). Fall.
MATH 361. Introduction to Higher Geometry. 3 Credits.
A survey of axiomatic and modern geometry intended for future middle and high school teachers. Topics covered will include incidence axioms, congruence theorems for triangles, the circle theorems, implications of the fifth postulate, congruence theorems for quadrilaterals, parallelism, similarity, transformational geometry, matrix transformations, and an introduction to spherical and hyperbolic geometry. The course will incorporate the use of appropriate software as a tool for verification of conjectures. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 and Corequisites: MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 351. Spring of odd years.
MATH 372. Linear Algebra I. 3 Credits.
Linear equations and matrices, vector spaces, subspaces, linear independence, bases, dimension, inner product spaces, linear transformations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, orthogonal matrices and diagonalization. Not open to students with credit for MATH 351. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 or MATH 285 or MATH 287.
MATH 375. Internship for Juniors. 3 Credits.
Students participate in an offcampus training experience closely related to their area of mathematics. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Prerequisites: Junior status, 3.0 GPA and permission of the student's advisor or Department chair.
MATH 377. Algebra I. 3 Credits.
The first part of a twosemester sequence. An introduction to algebraic structures with an emphasis on groups, covering normal subgroups, cosets. Lagrange's theorem and the fundamental homomorphism theorems. Fall. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 and (MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 351).
MATH 385. Vector Calculus. 3 Credits.
Review of vector algebra. Vectorvalued functions. Divergence and curl. Multiple integrals; different coordinate systems. Line integrals, Greens Theorem, independence of path, conservative force fields. Surface integrals, Divergence Theorem, Stokes Theorem, Applications. Offered irregularly. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in Calculus III (MATH 285 or MATH 287).
MATH 386. Partial Differential Equations. 3 Credits.
Classification of partial differential equations. Characteristics. Derivation of the classical linear second order equations. Fourier series. Separation of variables. Initial and boundary value problems. Cauchy, Dirichlet, and Neumann problems. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 286.
MATH 387. Analysis I. 3 Credits.
A rigorous treatment of differential calculus of one variable: sequences, limits, continuity, the derivative, the Riemann integral.
Spring.Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 and Calculus III (MATH 285 or MATH 287).
MATH 422. Seminar for Mathematics Education. 3 Credits.
This course is intended for prospective secondary mathematics teachers. Topics in high school mathematics are examined from an advanced perspective. Topics include the real and complex numbers, functions, equations, and trigonometry. Spring. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 and (MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 351) Offered irregularly.
MATH 432. Statistical Inference. 3 Credits.
Sampling distributions, point estimation, interval estimation, testing statistical hypotheses, regression and correlation. Offered irregularly. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 331.
MATH 433. Advanced Statistics. 3 Credits.
Analysis of variance, regression analysis, nonparametric and sequential tests of hypotheses. Offered irregularly. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 432.
MATH 448. Combinatorics & Graph Theory. 3 Credits.
Fundamental concepts in combinatorics including binomial coefficients, inclusionexclusion, and generating functions. Topics in graph theory include connectivity, planarity, colorings and chromatic polynomials, and maxflowmincut in networks, and other applications. Not open to students with credit for CMPT 335. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 243.
MATH 455. Operations Research. 3 Credits.
Optimization, linear programming, simplex method, duality theory. Transportation problems, scheduling problems, queuing theory. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 351 or permission of instructor.
MATH 456. Mathematical Modeling. 3 Credits.
This course uses mathematical modeling to help actual clients in the realworld answer
questions about their operations. Students will gain experience using industrystandard
technology such as R, Excel, MATLAB and/or SPSS while establishing contacts with a
realworld client. Prerequisite: MATH 156 or MATH 186 or MATH 188.
MATH 457. Machine Learning. 3 Credits.
An introduction to the field of machine learning and its realworld applications.
Topics include supervised & unsupervised learning, Bayesian decision theory, nonparametric methods, linear discriminant functions, multilayer neural networks, stochastic methods and cluster analysis. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 272 or MATH 372 or MATH 351 or permission of instructor.
MATH 464. Topology. 3 Credits.
Beginning with a review of set theory and basic topological definitions, topological spaces are studied with metric spaces considered as examples. Compactness, connectedness, metrization theorems. An introduction to homotopy theory. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 243 or permission of instructor.
MATH 471. Linear Algebra II. 3 Credits.
A continuation of the topics introduced in MATH 372 with emphasis on orthogonality, inner product spaces, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, quadratic forms and numerical linear algebra. Fall. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 372. Fall of even years.
MATH 475. Internship for Seniors. 3 Credits.
Students participate in an offcampus training experience closely related to their area of mathematics. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Prerequisites: Senior status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor or the Department Chair.
MATH 478. Algebra II. 3 Credits.
A continuation of MATH 377. Further study of algebraic structures, such as rings, fields and integral domains. The homomorphism theorems and applications. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 377.
MATH 488. Analysis II. 3 Credits.
A continuation of MATH 387. Topology of the real numbers, uniform convergence, Riemann integral, infinite series, Taylor and Fourier series, metric spaces. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in MATH 387.
MATH 489. Problem Seminar. 3 Credits.
A capstone course for senior Mathematics majors. Problems will be chosen to integrate the themes of the major. Oral presentations and mathematical writing and proof will be emphasized. Spring. Prerequisites: A grade of C or better in MATH 377 and MATH 387 or permission of instructor.
MATH 490. Complex Analysis. 3 Credits.
The complex plane, functions, limits and continuity. Analytic functions, Cauchy Riemann equations. Cauchy integral theorem and consequences. Additional topics may include: power series, Taylor and Laurent series, classification of singularities, the Residue Theorem and its applications, conformal mapping, selected applications. Spring. Prerequisite: A grade of C or better in (MATH 243 and MATH 285) or MATH 286 or permission of instructor. Fall of odd years.
MATH 491. Topics in Mathematics. 3 Credits.
Admission only by permission of the Chair of the Department. This course is offered when demand warrants. Prerequisite: Permission of the Department Chair.
MATH 492. Topics in Mathematics. 3 Credits.
Admission only by permission of the Chair of the Department. This course is offered when demand warrants. Prerequisite: Permission of the Department Chair.
MATH 497. Mathematics Seminar. 3 Credits.
A course limited to students of superior ability who wish to study some advanced topic mutually agreed upon by them, the instructor and the Department Chair. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and the Department Chair.
MATH 499. Independent Study. 13 Credit.
Individual study or research under faculty supervision. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and the Department Chair.
Physics Courses
PHYS 101. Physics I. 3 Credits.
A calculus approach to the basic concepts of mechanics. Three lecture hours. Must also register for PHYS 191 lab. Prerequisite or Corequisite: MATH 155 or MATH 185, or MATH 187.
PHYS 102. Physics II. 3 Credits.
A calculus approach to the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism. Three lecture hours. Must also register for PHYS 192 lab. Prerequisite or corequisite PHYS 101 and MATH 156, or MATH 186, or MATH 188.
PHYS 105. Principles of Physics I. 4 Credits.
An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of Physics including mechanics, oscillations and waves. Three lecture hours.
PHYS 106. Principles of Physics II. 4 Credits.
An introduction to the basic principles and concepts of physics including, electricity and magnetism, optics and modern physics. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite: PHYS 105 or equivalent.
PHYS 107. Introduction to Physics I. 3 Credits.
An algebra based approach to the basic concepts of mechanics, oscillations and waves, fluid statics and dynamics with biological applications. Three lecture hours.
PHYS 108. Introduction to Physics II. 3 Credits.
An algebra based approach to the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism, electromagnetic waves, optics and elementary modern physics with biological applications. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite: PHYS 107 or equivalent.
PHYS 191. Physics I Lab. 1 Credit.
Physics I Laboratory. Three lab hours, Corequisite: PHYS 101.
PHYS 192. Physics II Lab. 1 Credit.
Physics II Laboratory. Three lab hours. Corequisite: PHYS 102.
PHYS 193. Introduction to Physics I Lab. 1 Credit.
Introduction to Physics I Laboratory. Three lab hours. Corequisite: PHYS 107.
PHYS 194. Introduction to Physics II Lab. 1 Credit.
Introduction to Physics II Laboratory. Three lab hours. Corequisite: PHYS 108.
PHYS 195. Principles of Physics I Lab. 0 Credits.
Principles of Physics I Laboratory. Three lab hours. Corequisite: PHYS 105.
PHYS 196. Principles of Physics II Lab. 0 Credits.
Principles of Physics II Laboratory. Three lab hours. Corequisite: PHYS 106.
PHYS 201. Wave Theory of Light and Matter. 3 Credits.
Intermediate level introduction to electromagnetic waves and the theory of light, geometrical and physical optics, introduction to quantum concepts and the wave nature of matter with applications to the solid state.
PHYS 209. Mathematical Methods in Physics. 3 Credits.
Complex algebra and analysis, vector analysis, matrices and eigenvalue problems. Fourier series and introduction to linear spaces. Introduction to partial differential equations as applied to physics. Three lecture hours. Prerequisites: C or better in PHYS 102 and MATH 285 or MATH 287.
PHYS 214. Electricity and Magnetism. 3 Credits.
Electrostatics, Magnetostatics, Faraday's Law, Maxwell's equations using vector analysis. Spring. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 102; MATH 285.
PHYS 221. Physics of Digital Systems. 4 Credits.
The basic physics and selected circuit applications of solid state devices such as the diode, transistor and opamp as used in digital systems. The lectures will concentrate on the development of band theory and the diode equation from first principles while the lab will concentrate on digital circuit application using TTL and analog IC'S. Three lectures and one threehour laboratory. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, PHYS 102 sequence.
PHYS 222. Astronomy. 3 Credits.
An intermediate level broad overview in astronomy such as spherical astronomy, reference systems, rotational dynamics, astronomical tools, solar system, space weather, exoplanets, star formation, stellar evolution, galaxies and the large scale structure of the Universe. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 101 and PHYS 102.
PHYS 233. Physics III. 3 Credits.
Introduction to oscillations, mechanical waves, fluid dynamics, and thermodynamics. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 102.
PHYS 234. Physics IV. 3 Credits.
Gravitation, electromagnetic waves, optics, introduction to modern physics, and solid state physics. Three lecture hours. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 102.
PHYS 261. Intermediate Laboratory I. 1 Credit.
Experiments in mechanical waves, fluids, and thermodynamics. Three lab hours.
PHYS 262. Intermediate Laboratory II. 1 Credit.
Experiments in electricity and magnetism, optics, and introductory modern physics. Three Lab hours.
PHYS 301. Computational Physics. 3 Credits.
An introduction to computational physics. Monte Carlo techniques. Numerical differentiation and integration. Searching, fitting and data analysis. Differential equations. Three lecture hours. Prerequisites: C or better in PHYS 102 and MATH 285 or MATH 287.
PHYS 309. Mechanics I. 3 Credits.
Dynamics of particles and systems; Gravitation; Rotating Coordinates; Motion of rigid bodies, Lagrangian formulation. Coupled oscillators. Three lectures. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 311. Atomic & Nuclear Physics. 3 Credits.
Schroedinger wave theory for atomic structure. Magnetic field effects on atoms. Atomic and molecular spectra. Introductory nuclear physics. Three lectures. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 312. Quantum Mechanics I. 3 Credits.
Introduction to Quantum theory. One dimensional quantum systems. The harmonic oscillator. Central Potentials. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 314. Electromagnetic Waves. 3 Credits.
Electromagnetic waves and their interaction with matter. Maxwell's Equations in free space and dielectric media. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 341. Topics in Astrophysics. 3 Credits.
Topics of current interest in astrophysics, including stellar structure and atmospheres, evolution and remnants, formation of stars and planetary systems, galactic structure and evolution of galaxies. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 342. Topics: in Astrophysics. 3 Credits.
Topics of current interest in astrophysics, including stellar structure and atmospheres, evolution and remnants, formation of stars and planetary systems, galactic structure and evolution of galaxies. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209.
PHYS 350. Optics. 3 Credits.
Wave optics, light and matter, interference, diffraction, polarization, and advanced topics in Optics. Three lecture hours. Prerequisites: C or better in PHYS 102 and MATH 285 or MATH 287.
PHYS 351. Modern Physics Laboratory I. 2 Credits.
Experimental verification of properties of atomic structure. One threehour period.
PHYS 352. Modern Physics Lab II. 3 Credits.
Advanced experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. Properties of radioactivity. One fourhour period.
PHYS 375. Internship for Juniors. 3 Credits.
Students participate in an offcampus training experience closely related to one of the areas of physics. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Prerequisites: Junior status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor or Chair.
PHYS 410. Advanced Theoretical Physics. 3 Credits.
Vector and tensor analysis, complex variables, integral transform and Green's function methods in theoretical physics, special functions and partial differential equations, group theory in quantum mechanics. Three lecture hours.
PHYS 414. Electromagnetic Radiation II. 3 Credits.
Dielectric and Magnetic materials, electromagnetic waves in free space and media. Dipole radiation.
PHYS 415. Statistical Mechanics. 3 Credits.
Statistical mechanics of many body systems in equilibrium. Thermal behavior and phase transitions in condensed matter. Boltzmann's equation and nonequilibrium phenomena.
PHYS 432. Solid State Physics. 3 Credits.
Lattices and crystal binding. Phonons and lattice vibrations. Thermal properties of insulators. Metals, free electron gas, energy bands. Semiconductors, mobility, life times, pn junctions. Superconductivity, B.C.S. theory. Phase transitions Magnetorthermal properties. Three lectures.
PHYS 434. Research Problems in Physics. 2 Credits.
PHYS 435. Research Problems in Physics. 2 Credits.
PHYS 440. Research Project in Physics. 3 Credits.
Introductory level student research projects in either experimental or theoretical physics carried out under the guidance of a faculty member.
PHYS 441. Senior Thesis. 3 Credits.
An independent study program in experimental or theoretical physics to provide an opportunity for the scientific development of advanced undergraduate physics majors. Minimum of six hours a week devoted to an organized study program is required. Permission of department chair necessary.
PHYS 442. Senior Thesis. 3 Credits.
An independent study program in experimental or theoretical physics to provide an opportunity for the scientific development of advanced undergraduate physics majors. Minimum of six hours a week devoted to an organized study program is required. Permission of department chair necessary.
PHYS 443. Quantum Mechanics II: Quantum Computing & Information. 3 Credits.
Development of the formal structure of quantum mechanics. Time independent perturbation theory. Theory of scattering. Entanglement, Bell's theorem, quantum computing and quantum information. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 312 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 445. Research Project in Physics. 2 Credits.
Introductory level student research projects in either experimental or theoretical physics carried out under the guidance of a faculty member.
PHYS 446. Topics in Cosmology. 3 Credits.
Topics of current interest in cosmology, including cosmic distance ladder, geometry of the expanding universe, thermal history and cosmic microwave background, inflation and the primordial era. Prerequisite: C or better in PHYS 209 or with permission of department chair.
PHYS 450. Seminar. 1 Credit.
Single and sequential lectures on special topics in physics. Track I majors are required to present a research paper on either a theoretical or experimental topic in the spring semester of the senior year.
PHYS 475. Internship for Seniors. 3 Credits.
Students participate in an offcampus training experience closely related to their area of physics. Frequent meetings with the advisor plus a paper are required. Prerequisites: Senior status, 3.0 GPA, and permission of the student's advisor or the Chair.
PHYS 499. Independent Study. 13 Credit.
Individual study or research under faculty supervision. Prerequisite: Permission of the Department Chair.